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Linking Ecology & Horticulture 
to Prevent Plant Invasions
Workshop News Codes of Conduct Workshop Proceedings
Note: The following coes from the printed proceedings of the St. Louis workshop. Revisions were accepted in early 2002.
You can click here to go to see the approved and revised codes.
Selections from the Proceedings of the workshop at
the Missouri Botanical Garden, December 2001

Organizing Committee
Sponsors, Convenors, and Financial Supporters
Executive Summary
Workshop Findings and Principles
Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct
Future Directions
The St. Louis Declaration On Invasive Plant Species
Workshop Proceedings Contributors
List of Participants

Download the entire St. Louis workshop proceedings (PDF)

Organizing Committee     

John M. Randall, University of California
Patricia D. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden
Peter H. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden
Sarah Reichard, University of Washington (Chair)
Peter S. White, North Carolina Botanical Garden
Editor: Kate Fay, K. C. Fay and Associates

Sponsors, Convenors, and Financial Supporters     TOP

The American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta

American Nursery & Landscape Association

American Society of Landscape Architects

Botanic Gardens Conservation International

Center for Plant Conservation

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

The Chicago Botanic Garden

Global Invasive Species Programme

Agricultural Research Service (USDA)

Environmental Defense

Missouri Botanical Garden

National Science Foundation

Turner Foundation, Inc.

Winslow Foundation

Foreword     TOP

Plants are essential to sustaining the stability and quality of human life on Planet Earth. Their loss threatens the future of our children and our grandchildren. Today Planet Earth has lost a third of its forests, a quarter of its topsoil, and plants and animals are disappearing faster than we can learn about them, or even know what is gone. Invasive non-native plants pose one of the most serious threats to the protection of biological diversity worldwide, and the introduction and spread of these adventive species continue, in many cases, unchecked.

In December 2001, the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, were honored to convene experts from across the globe to explore and develop workable, voluntary approaches for reducing the introduction and spread of non-native invasive plants. I am pleased to say that this landmark three-day gathering, The Workshop on Linking Ecology and Horticulture to Prevent Plant Invasions, made important progress. It produced the St. Louis Declaration, which includes Findings and Principles that frame the invasive plant species problem and offer a basis for practical and effective ways to address the problem. More significantly, The St. Louis Declaration also offers draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct. These codes can serve as guides for responses to curb the spread of invasive plant species, while promoting courses of action that will minimize this spread. The following “Workshop Proceedings” present outcomes from the Workshop, which I believe will have tangible impacts on this serious environmental and economic problem.

We at the Missouri Botanical Garden remain devoted to all endeavors that help conserve biological diversity while there is still much left to protect. We applaud the collaborative progress made at this Workshop by dedicated scientists, policy-makers, gardeners, landscape professionals, botanical gardens and arboreta, and the nursery industry.

Peter H. Raven
Director, Missouri Botanical Garden

Executive Summary     TOP

In December 2001, experts from across the globe met in St. Louis, Missouri to explore and develop workable voluntary approaches for reducing the introduction and spread of non-native invasive plants, which are serious threats to protecting biodiversity and ecosystems in the United States and other countries. The Workshop on Linking Ecology and Horticulture to Prevent Plant Invasions (the Workshop) was convened by the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. It brought together for the first time some of the most respected leaders in their fields (See Appendix F for a list of participants). Extensive preparation for the Workshop began in early 2001, with leaders among a variety of groups recognizing the need for a more collaborative response to the growing problem of plant invasions. These leaders took the initiative to gather and establish a comprehensive and manageable workshop agenda; one that could attract broad participation.

This landmark three-day gathering yielded the Saint Louis Declaration, which consists of two major components:
1. Findings and Principles that frame the invasive species problem and present the underlying basis for successful efforts to address it; and,

2. Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct that help govern decisions made by commercial, professional and government groups whose actions affect the spread of invasive plant species including government agencies, nursery professionals, the gardening public, landscape architects and botanic gardens and arboreta.

These products represent an important first step in this collaborative, comprehensive and effective response to the global invasive plant species problem. Plans to further develop solutions will seek to include additional key parties unable to attend the first workshop; including more representation from state government, garden writers and global experts, as well as from regional organizations and the international seed trade industry.

Some workshop participants presented perspectives on key topics that drive concerns and potential solutions related to the invasive plant species issue worldwide. These presentations ranged from the environmental impacts associated with invasive plants to how horticultural practices contribute to the spread of invasive plants. Those organizing the Workshop selected the
presentation topics so that each of the following general categories could be addressed and combined to help the workshop participants establish the Findings and Principles and Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct, a primary Workshop goal. The presentations also helped identify possible future workshop focus areas and needs. The presentation and general discussion topics included:

· Environmental impacts associated with the spread of invasive plants
· How horticulture contributes to the spread of invasive plants
· The nursery industry’s view of the problem and the status of response efforts
· The Federal government response to concerns about invasive plants
· Risk assessment as a tool for addressing invasive plant problems
· Experiences developing and using voluntary codes of conduct

Brief summaries of most of these presentations are presented below. Their authors are also identified.

Several key actions since the Workshop have already provided tangible progress toward implementing The St. Louis Declaration. They include:

· The American Nursery and Landscape Association (ANLA) endorsed the St. Louis Declaration and adopted the draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Nursery Professionals.

· The Garden Club of America has endorsed the St. Louis Declaration and is reviewing and refining the draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct for the Gardening Public.

· The University of Washington is using the draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Botanical Gardens and evaluating all plantings and planting procedures on its campus, treating them as a plant collection.

· The Missouri Botanical Garden, The Chicago Botanic Garden and the North Carolina Botanical Garden have endorsed the St. Louis Declaration and adopted the draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Botanical Gardens and Arboreta.

· The Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association (FNGA), the largest state nursery association in the United States, has adopted the draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Nursery Professionals.

· The Board of Directors of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) will consider endorsing the draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Landscape Architects during its annual meeting in October 2002. Additionally, ANLA will host an education session on invasive plants during the annual meeting, to be held in San Jose, CA.

Workshop Findings and Principles     TOP

Among the most important and challenging components of the St. Louis Declaration to develop during the workshop were the Findings and Principles. They help guide effective responses to the invasive plant species problem. Given the diverse representation at the Workshop, such an effort was both hard work and rewarding. By framing the invasive plant species issue and presenting the underlying basis for successfully addressing it, participants were able to acknowledge its key sources, regional nature, threat to natural systems and biological diversity, and its magnitude. Workshop participants were then able to use these Findings to establish Principles to guide future responses by stakeholders playing a role in solving the invasive plant species problem. Parties may include landscape architects, the nursery professionals, federal, state, regional and local government agencies, botanic gardens and arboreta, garden clubs, garden writers, regional planning groups, international trade groups and others. The Principles:
· Address how future plant introductions should be pursued
· Emphasize the importance of a national problem response framework that leaves room for regional solutions
· Encourage the use of available assessment tools, resources and voluntary codes of conduct
· Establish the importance of public education and professional training
· Stress the fundamental importance of broad-based collaboration

With the Findings and Principles established, workshop participants were able to develop a set of draft voluntary codes of conduct. Appendix A contains the Findings and Principles of the St. Louis Declaration.

Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct     TOP

A second component of the St. Louis Declaration is Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct. They offer professional codes of conduct designed to curb the use and distribution of invasive plant species through self-governance and self-regulation by the groups concerned. This approach has already been used successfully to ameliorate other problems but its application to invasive plant threats is novel and innovative. Importantly, the workshop participants and others who helped draft the voluntary codes of conduct are acutely aware that education must accompany all efforts to address the problem and that some future government regulation may perhaps also be needed if such efforts prove insufficient. Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct have been developed for nursery professionals, government, the gardening public, landscape architects, botanic gardens and arboreta. They are as follows and reprints can be downloaded.

These draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct are now being considered for endorsement, and in some cases refinement, by the major professional societies and organizations representing each of the groups covered. If endorsed, they will be ‘tested’ and revised as necessary to improve their utility and effectiveness. At this time, plans are under development to gather workshop participants once again in Chicago in late October or early November to, among other matters, further establish final voluntary codes of conduct. If this event takes place, representatives from additional key groups will be invited and encouraged to participate.

Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Government

1. Require risk assessment for government-led or financed plant introductions to ensure that no new harmful plant species are introduced, intentionally or unintentionally.

2. Do not distribute existing holdings of invasive plant species to areas where they can potentially do harm; eliminate these holdings or maintain new or existing holdings using appropriate safeguards.

3. Coordinate and facilitate collaboration in databases, early warning systems, monitoring, and other means of preventing invasive plant species problems.

4. Lead and fund (subject to budgetary considerations) the development of environmentally sound methods to control harmful invasive plant species, seek control of such species on public lands and promote their control on adjacent private lands.

5. Develop and promote the use of non-invasive plant species within all government units and to the public.

6. Facilitate, lead, coordinate and evaluate public outreach and education on harmful invasive plant species.

7. Encourage Federal employees and management to participate in ongoing training programs on invasive plant species.

8. Foster international cooperation to minimize the risk of the import and export of potentially invasive plant species.

9. Develop partnerships and incentive programs to lessen the impact of invasive plant species and provide non-invasive restoration materials.

10. Provide a forum for regular evaluation of the effectiveness of these voluntary codes of conduct towards preventing the invasive plant species problem.

11. Enforce invasive plant species legislation at all levels.

Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Nursery Professionals

1. Ensure that invasive potential is assessed prior to introducing and marketing plant species new to North America. Invasive potential should be assessed by the introducer or qualified experts using emerging risk assessment methods that consider plant characteristics and prior observations or experience with the plant elsewhere in the world. Additional insights may be gained through extensive monitoring on the nursery site prior to further distribution.

2. Work with regional experts and stakeholders to determine which species in your region are either currently invasive or will become invasive. Identify plants that could be suitable alternatives in your region.

3. Develop and promote alternative plant material through plant selection and breeding.

4. Where agreement has been reached among nursery associations, government, academia, and ecology and conservation organizations, phase-out existing stocks of those specific invasive species in regions where they are considered to be a threat.

5. Follow all laws on importation and quarantine of plant materials across political boundaries.

6. Encourage customers to use, and garden writers to promote, non-invasive plants.

Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct For The Gardening Public

1. Ask for only non-invasive species when you acquire plants. Plant only environmentally safe species in your gardens. Work towards and promote new landscape design that is friendly to regional ecosystems.

2. Seek information on which species are invasive in your area. Sources could include botanical gardens, horticulturists, conservationists, and government agencies. Remove invasive species from your land and replace them with non-invasive species suited to your site and needs.

3. Do not trade plants with other gardeners if you know they are species with invasive characteristics.

4. Request that botanical gardens and nurseries promote, display and sell only non-invasive species.

5. Help educate your community and other gardeners in your area through personal contact, and in such settings as garden clubs and other civic groups.

6. Ask garden writers and other media to emphasize the problem of invasive species and provide information. Request that garden writers promote only non-invasive species.

7. Invite speakers knowledgeable on the invasive species issue to speak to garden clubs, master gardeners, schools and other community groups.

8. Seek the best information on control of invasive plant species and organize neighborhood work groups to remove invasive plant species under the guidance of knowledgeable professionals.

9. Volunteer at botanical gardens and natural areas to assist ongoing efforts to diminish the threat of invasive plants.

10. Participate in early warning systems by reporting invasive species you observe in your area. Determine which group or agency should be responsible for reports emanating from your area. If no 800 number exists for such reporting, request that one be established, citing the need for a clearinghouse with an 800 number and website links to information about invasive plant species.

11. Assist garden clubs to create policies regarding the use of invasive species not only in horticulture, but also in activities such as flower shows. Urge florists and others to eliminate the use of invasive plant material.

Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct For Landscape Architects

1. Seek out education and information on invasive species issues:

a) Work with local plant ecologists, horticulturists, nurseries, botanic gardens, conservation organizations and others to determine what species in your region either are currently highly invasive or show aggressive potential. Investigate species under consideration that may present a threat.

b) Increase interaction with other professionals and non-professionals to identify alternative plant material and other solutions to problems caused by harmful invasive plants.

c) Take advantage of continuing education opportunities to learn more about invasive species issues.

2. Identify and specify non-invasive species that are aesthetically and horticulturally suitable alternatives to invasive species in your region.

3. Eliminate specification of species that are invasive in your region.

4. Be aware of potential environmental impacts beyond the designed and managed area of the landscape plan (e.g. plants may spread to adjacent natural area or cropland).

5. Encourage nurseries and other suppliers to provide landscape contractors and the public with non-invasive plants.

6. Collaborate with other local experts and agencies in the development and revision of local landscape ordinances. Promote inclusion of invasive species issues in these ordinances.

Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct For Botanic Gardens and Arboreta

1. Conduct an institution-wide review examining all departments and activities that provide opportunities to stem the proliferation of invasive species and inform visitors. For example, review or write a collections policy that addresses this issue; examine such activities as seed sales, plant sales, book store offerings, wreath-making workshops, etc.

2. Avoid introducing invasive plants by establishing an invasive plant assessment procedure. Predictive risk assessments are desirable, and should also include responsible monitoring on the garden site or through partnerships with other institutions. Institutions should be aware of both direct and indirect effects of plant introduction, such as biological interference in gene flow, disruption of pollinator relationships, etc.

3. Consider removing invasive species from plant collections. If a decision is made to retain an invasive plant, ensure its control and provide strong interpretation to the public explaining the risk and its function in the garden.

4. Seek to control harmful invasive species in natural areas managed by the garden and assist others in controlling them on their property, when possible.

5. Promote non-invasive alternative plants or, when possible, help develop non-invasive alternatives through plant selection or breeding.

6. If your institution participates in seed or plant distribution, including through Index Seminum, do not distribute known invasive plants except for bona-fide research purposes, and consider the consequences of distribution outside your biogeographic region. Consider a statement of caution attached to species that appear to be potentially invasive but have not been fully evaluated.

7. Increase public awareness about invasive plants. Inform why they are a problem, including the origin, mechanisms of harm, and need for prevention and control. Work with the local nursery and seed industries to assist the public in environmentally safe gardening and sales. Horticulture education programs, such as those at universities, should also be included in education and outreach efforts. Encourage the public to evaluate what they do in their own practices and gardens.

8. Participate in developing, implementing, or supporting national, regional, or local early warning systems for immediate reporting and control. Participate also in the creation of regional lists of concern.

9. Botanical gardens should try to become informed about invasiveness of their species in other biogeographic regions, and this information should be compiled and shared in a manner accessible to all.

10. Become partners with other organizations in the management of harmful invasive species.

11. Follow all laws on importation, exportation, quarantine, and distribution of plant
materials across political boundaries, including foreign countries. Be sensitive to conventions and treaties that deal with this issue, and encourage affiliated organizations (plant societies, garden clubs, etc.) to do the same.

Future Directions      TOP

Since the December 2001 Workshop, there have been a number of follow-up activities discussed and implemented. As mentioned earlier, a number of important national organizations have already endorsed several of the products of the workshop, importantly the Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct and the St. Louis Declaration (See In addition, the Chicago Botanic Garden has agreed to host a follow-up meeting in the fall of 2002. While the specific agenda and participant list for this meeting have not yet been fully developed, the meeting will reconvene many of those who participated in the December 2001 workshop to further refine the Voluntary Codes of Conduct, as well as discuss a variety of other opportunities for advancing national level efforts to address the problems presented by invasive plants. Please follow planning and agenda development efforts for this meeting on the website referred to above.

Appendix A. The St. Louis Declaration On Invasive Plant Species     


People are major dispersers of plants. The magnitude of this dispersal is unprecedented and has allowed dispersal of species that manifest aggressive traits in new areas.

Plant introduction and improvement are the foundation of modern agriculture and horticulture, yielding diversity to our supply of plants used for food, forestry, landscapes and gardens, medicinal and other purposes.

A small proportion of introduced plant species become invasive and cause unwanted impacts to natural systems and biological diversity as well as economies, recreation, and health.

Plant species can be invasive in some regions, but not in others. The impacts of invasive plant species can occur at times and places far removed from the site of introduction.

Principles a.k.a. The St. Louis Six

1. Plant introduction should be pursued in a manner that both acknowledges and minimizes unintended harm.

2. Efforts to address invasive plant species prevention and management should be implemented consistent with national goals or standards, while considering regional differences to the fullest extent possible.

3. Prevention and early detection are the most cost effective techniques that can be used against invasive plants.

4. Research, public education and professional training are essential to more fully understanding the invasive plant issue and positively affecting consumer demand, proper plant use, development of non-invasive alternatives, and other solutions.

5. Individuals from many fields must come together to undertake a broad-based and collaborative effort to address the challenge, including leaders in horticulture, retail and wholesale nurseries, weed science, ecology, conservation groups, botanical gardens, garden clubs, garden writers, educational institutions, landscape architects, foundations and government.

6. A successful invasive plant species strategy will make use of all available tools including voluntary codes of conduct, best management practices, and appropriate regulation. Codes of conduct for specific communities of interest are an essential first step in that they encourage voluntary initiative, foster information exchange, and minimize the expense of regulation.

Appendix E. Workshop Proceedings Contributors     TOP

Betty Alloway
Federated Garden Clubs of Missouri

Jennifer Dowdell
American Society of Landscape Architects

Dr. Kayri Havens
Chicago Botanic Garden

Dr. Kathryn Kennedy
Center for Plant Conservation

Darrel Morrison
University of Georgia

Dr. John Randall
The Nature Conservancy

Dr. Patricia Raven
Missouri Botanical Garden

Craig Regelbrugge
The American Nursery & Landscape Association

Dr. Sarah Reichard
The University of Washington

Jocelyn Sladen
The Garden Club of America

Dr. Peter White
University of North Carolina

Lori Williams
The National Invasive Species Council

Appendix F. List of Participants     TOP

Ms. Betty Alloway
Federated Garden Clubs of Missouri
10000 Wornall Road, Apt. 1412
Kansas City, Missouri 64114 USA

Mr. Tony Avent
Plant Delights Nursery at
Juniper Level Botanic Garden
9241 Sauls Road
Raleigh, North Carolina 27603 USA

Ms. Jocelyn Ball
Kansas City Parks and Recreation Department
4600 E. 63rd Street
Kansas City, Missouri 64130 USA

Mr. Richard Barrett
Blue Hills Landscape Consulting
7128 Nall Avenue
Overland Park, Kansas 66208-2351 USA

Ms. Yvonne Baskin
Science Writer
Global Invasive Species Programme
PMB 145
200 South 23rd Avenue, Building D7
Bozeman, Montana 59718 USA

Ms. Rebecca Bech
USDA Invasive Species Coordinator and
Secretary’s Liaison to the
National Invasive Species Council
USDA National Invasive Species Council
1951 Constitution Avenue, N. W., Ste. 320
Washington, D.C. 20240 USA

Mr. Pierre Bennerup
Sunny Border Nurseries, Inc.
3637 State Route 167
Jefferson, Ohio 44047 USA

Dr. Robert G. Breunig
Executive Director
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
4801 La Crosse Avenue
Austin, Texas 78739-1702 USA

Mr. Peter W. Bristol
Curator of Woody Plants
Chicago Botanic Garden
1000 Lake Cook Road
Glencoe, Illinois 60022 USA

Ms. Rebecca Connor
Federated Garden Clubs of Missouri
701 Cannonberry
St. Louis, Missouri 63119 USA

Ms. Sophie Connor
Federated Garden Clubs of Missouri
424 Hawthorne
St. Louis, Missouri 63119 USA

Ms. Carol Dawson
U.S. Bureau of Land Management
1849 C Street, NW, MS:314LS
Washington, D.C. 20240 USA

Ms. Jennifer Dowdell
American Society of Landscape Architects
636 Eye Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20001-3736 USA

Ms. Kate Fay
Kate C. Fay and Associates
1121 Emerson Street
Denver, Colorado 80218 USA

Dr. James P. Folsom
Huntington Botanical Gardens
1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, California 91108 USA

Mr. William M. Fountain IV
Extension Horticulture Specialist
University of Kentucky
N308g Agriculture Science Center North 0091
Lexington, Kentucky 40506 USA

Mr. John F. Gaskin
Missouri Botanical Garden
P. O. Box 299
St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299 USA

Ms. Ann Gibbs
Regional President, Eastern Plant Board
National Plant Board
Division of Plant Industry
Maine Department of Agriculture
28 State House Station
Augusta, Maine 04333-0028 USA

Mrs. Cindy Gilberg
Vice President
Gilberg Perennial Farms, Inc.
2906 Ossenfort Road
Wildwood, Missouri 63038 USA

Mr. David Gilchrist
Nursery Technical Adviser
Horticultural Trades Association
England, U.K.

Mr. Hugh Gramling
Executive Director
Tampa Bay Wholesale Growers Association
1311 South Parsons Avenue
Seffner, Florida 33584 USA

Mr. Harlan Hamernik
Bluebird Nursery
P. O Box 460
519 Bryan Street
Clarkson, Nebraska 68629 USA

Dr. Kayri Havens
Manager, Endangered Plant Research
Chicago Botanic Garden
1000 Lake Cook Road
Glencoe, Illinois 60022 USA

Dr. Derald Harp
Assistant Professor
Department of Agriculture
Southeast Missouri State University
1 University Plaza, MS 6100
Cape Girardeau, Missouri 63701 USA

Mr. C. Dale Hendricks
North Creek Nurseries
388 North Creek Road
Landenberg, Pennsylvania 19350 USA

Ms. Becky Homan
St. Louis Post-Dispatch
900 North Tucker Boulevard
St. Louis, Missouri 63101 USA

Ms. Joan Hood
First Vice President
Federated Garden Clubs of Missouri
1504 Avenue A
Webster Groves, Missouri 63119 USA

Mr. George Hull
Research and Plant Development
Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
10020 W. Glendale Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85307-2500 USA

Mr. Andy Jackson
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE
England, U.K.

Dr. Kathryn L. Kennedy
Center for Plant Conservation
Missouri Botanical Garden
P. O. Box 299
St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299 USA

Mrs. Carole Kroeger
Garden Club of America
c/o The Woodlands
9625 Ladue Road
St. Louis, Missouri 63124 USA

Mr. Rick Lewandowski
Mt. Cuba Center for the Study of Piedmont Flora
Box 3570, Barley Mill Road
Greenville, Delaware 19807-0570 USA

Mr. Paul Lewis
Project Coordinator
Discovering Alternatives to Garden Escapes
Stopping the Spread of Invasive Plants
Nursery and Garden Industry of Australia
P. O. Box 907
Epping, N. S. W. 1710

Ms. Sandy Lloyd
Executive Officer
State Weed Plan
Department of Agriculture
Locked Bag 4
Bentley, D. C., W. A. 6983

Dr. Kimberlie McCue
Conservation Coordinator
Missouri Botanical Garden
P. O. Box 299
St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299 USA

Mr. William A. McNamara
Quarryhill Botanical Garden
P. O. Box 232
Glen Ellen, California 95442 USA

Mr. John C. McPheeters
Bowood Farms
c/o 700 South Price Road
St. Louis, Missouri 63124-1867 USA

Mr. R. Wayne Mezitt
Weston Nursery, Inc.
P. O. Box 186
Hopkinton, Massachusetts 01748 USA

Ms. Olga Martha Montiel
Assistant to the Director
Missouri Botanical Garden
P. O. Box 299
St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299 USA

Dr. Harold A. Mooney
Department of Biological Sciences
Stanford University
Gilbert Building
Stanford, California 94305-5020 USA

Dr. Nancy R. Morin
Executive Director
Arboretum at Flagstaff
4001 South Woody Mountain Road
Flagstaff, Arizona 86001-8776 USA

Mr. Darrel G. Morrison
University of Georgia
609 Caldwell Hall
Athens, Georgia 30602 USA

Ms. Laurie E. Neville
Global Invasive Species Program
Department of Biological Sciences
Stanford University
385 Serra Mall/Herrin Labs 477
Stanford, California 94305-5020 USA

Dr. Margaret Pooler
Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit
United States National Arboretum
3501 New York Avenue, N. E.
Washington, D.C. 20002 USA

Dr. John M. Randall
The Nature Conservancy Invasive Species Program
Department of Vegetable Crops and Weed Science
University of California
124 Robbins Hall
Davis, California 95616 USA

Mr. Rod Randall
Weed Risk Assessment
Department of Agriculture
Locked Bag 4
Bentley, D. C., W. A. 6983

Dr. Patricia D. Raven
Research Associate
Missouri Botanical Garden
P. O. Box 299
St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299 USA

Dr. Peter H. Raven
Missouri Botanical Garden
P. O. Box 299
St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299 USA

Ms. Susan M. Reed
Director, East Central District
Federated Garden Clubs of Missouri
12907 Topping Estates, South Drive
St. Louis, Missouri 63131 USA

Mr. Craig J. Regelbrugge
Senior Director of Government Relations
American Nursery and Landscape Association
1250 I Street, Suite 500
Washington, D.C. 20005 USA

Dr. Sarah Reichard
Research Assistant Professor
Conservation Biology
University of Washington
Center for Urban Horticulture
Box 354115
Seattle, Washington 98195-4115 USA

Mrs. Barbara Simonson
Federated Garden Clubs of Missouri
640 Tarrymore Lane
Kirkwood, Missouri 63122 USA

Mr. Richard Simonson
Litzsinger Road Ecology Center
640 Tarrymore Lane
Kirkwood, Missouri 63122 USA

Ms. Jocelyn Sladen
Vice Chairman
Endangered and Invasive Species
National Affairs and Legislation Committee
Garden Club of America
6712 Blantyre Rd
Warrenton, Virginia 20187 USA

Ms. Kassie Smiley
Federated Garden Clubs of Missouri
Route 3, Box 182
Unionville, Missouri 63565 USA

Ms. Jill Spaid
6750 Devonshire Avenue
St. Louis, Missouri 63109 USA

Ms. Carol Spurrier
U. S. Bureau of Land Management
Forest Fish and Wildlife Group
849 C Street N. W., LSB-204
Washington, D.C. 20240 USA

Mr. G. Martin Street, Jr.
Director of Conservation Programs
The Nature Conservancy of Mississippi
Mississippi Field Office
6400 Lakeover Road, Suite C
Jackson, Mississippi 39213 USA

Mr. John Swintosky
Landscape Architect
Jefferson County Parks and Recreation
P. O. Box 37280
Louisville, Kentucky 40233-7280 USA

Dr. Susan Timmins
Plant Ecologist
Science & Research
Department of Conservation
P. O. Box 10-420
New Zealand

Dr. Lisa K. Wagner
Director of Education
South Carolina Botanical Garden
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0174 USA

Dr. Peter S. White
North Carolina Botanical Garden
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
CB 3375, Totten Center
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3375 USA

Ms. Lori C. Williams
Executive Director
National Invasive Species Council
1951 Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Suite 320 – South Interior Building
Washington, D.C. 20240 USA

Dr. Phyllis N. Windle
Senior Scientist, Global Environment Program
Union of Concerned Scientists
1707 H Street, N. W., Suite 600
Washington, D.C. 20006 USA

Dr. George Yatskievych
Missouri Botanical Garden
P. O. Box 299
St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299 USA

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