CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Chrysopsis floridana

Photographer:
c. Billy B. Boothe

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Chrysopsis floridana


Family: 
Asteraceae  
Common Name: 
Florida golden-aster
Author: 
Small
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
937

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Chrysopsis floridanaenlarge
Photographer: c. Billy B. Boothe


Chrysopsis floridana is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
S.K. Maddox contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Chrysopsis floridana


Chrysopsis floridana, or Florida golden aster, is a perennial herb that is wooly from the basal rosettes all the way to the top of the stem. The leaves at the woody base are 4 to 10 cm long, 1.5 to 2.0 cm wide, and they are densely short-wooly pubescent. The leaves on the stems are about the same size from the top to the bottom, are entire, and slightly clasping the stem, and they too are densely short-wooly pubescent. The flower heads form a more or less flat-topped cluster of 1 to 25 heads at the top of the stem. The flower head is entirely yellow, with both the central disc and the rays being golden yellow (USFWS 1999). The Florida golden aster is a short-lived perennial, flowering in late November and December and it reproduces by seeds, which are dispersed by the wind (USFWS 1999).

This species was listed as federally endangered in June of 1986. It occurs in small areas of ancient dunes with nutrient-poor, well-drained sandy soil on the west-central coast of Florida. Much of this species' habitat has been eliminated due to land development, and the two largest remaining known sites where it is found are vulnerable to residential construction. (USFWS 1986)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Florida
State Range of  Chrysopsis floridana
Habitat
  Florida golden aster is associated with the excessively drained soils typically found in the sand pine scrub community. Some of these sand ridges were formed during the late Miocene epoch. Chrysopsis floridana prefers open, sunny areas within the sand pine scrub, as these soils are extremely nutrient-poor and well-drained, and are composed primarily of siliceous sand. C. floridana was know to occur historically in scrub habitat on coastal dunes. The species has been reintroduced to the habitat is Pinellas County (USFWS 1999)

Distribution
  Known from 4 counties on the west-central coast of Florida.

Number Left
  About 20 populations, with almost half on conservation lands (Chafin 2000)
Over 1,000,000 individuals on 1 site
17 + recent discoveries in S.E. Hillsborough and Hardee Counties (this species is protected by local regulations)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
2/29/2000
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
8/29/1988

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Florida S1 LE 4/1/1998  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Very little is known about the relationship between Florida golden aster and other species. It is know that over-shading will result in a reduced population, and will eventually wipe out C. floridana from the understory. It has been found that C. floridana benefits from soil disturbance such as and an ant mound, rooting by armadillos, and gopher tortoise burrows. No studies have been done on pollinators. The trees found growing within the sand pine scrub include sand pine, scrub live, bluejack, Chapman's and myrtle oaks. Tarflower, staggerbush, saw palmetto, pawpaw, and hog plum occur in the shrub layer. The herbaceous layer usually includes wireweed, blazing star, wiregrass, deer's tongue, queen's delight, prairie clover and several species of lichens (USFWS 1999).

Threats
  Mechanical disturbance.
Exclusion of fire in scrub and xeric habitats.
Exotic pest plants.
Development.
(Chafin 2000, USFWS 1999)

Current Research Summary
  Dr. Bruce Cochrane at the University of Southern Florida is studying the genetics genus Chrysopsis, in particular Chrysopsis floridana, in order to assess its genetic diversity to help guide preservation efforts. (See Cochrane 2002).

Current Management Summary
  At the time of listing in 1986, all known populations were located on private land. Since then, many sites have become protected, and many of those are managed. (USFWS 1999)

A successful reintroduction was carried out in Pinellas County. The only limiting factor to more reintroduction efforts is the lack of remaining suitable habitats (USFWS 1999).

Research Management Needs
  Survey for distribution of Chrysopsis floridana in South Florida, especially in Hardee County.
(USFWS 1999)

Ex Situ Needs
  Determination of the genetic history of source plants for reintroduction efforts is necessary to insure that the correct plants are being used.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Coile, N.C. 2000. Notes on Florida's Regulated Plant Index (Rule 5B-40), Botany Contribution 38. Gainesville, Florida: Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.

FNAI. 2000. Field Guide to the Rare Plants and Animals of Florida online. Florida Natural Areas Inventory.

Hall, David W. 1993. Illustrated plants of Florida and the coastal plain. Gainesville, FL: Maupin House. 431p.

Radford, A.E.; Ahles, H.E.; Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1183p.

Ward, D.B. 1979. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida Volume 5: Plants. Gainseville, FL: University Presses of Florida.

Wunderlin, R.P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. 806p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Wallace, S.R. 1995. Collecting rare species in Florida. In: Guarino, Luigi; Rao, V. Ramanatha; Reid, Robert, editors. Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity--Technical Guidelines. CAB International. Wallingford, UK. p 685-689.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. [Web site] University of South Florida Institute for Systematic Botany. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/isb/default.htm. Accessed: 2008.

Cochrane, B.J. (2002). Research Web site. University of Southern Florida. http://www.cas.usf.edu/biology/cochrane.html. Accessed: 2002.

Denton, S. (2001). Photo Library of Native and Naturalized Plants of Florida. Biological Research Associates. http://www.biolresearch.com/Plants/index.php?id=C. Accessed: 2002.

ESIS. (1998). Endangered Species System (ESIS): Fish and Wildlife Exchange. [Web site;] Virginia Tech. http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Campbell, F.T. 1996. The Invasion of the Exotics. Endangered Species Bulletin. 21: 12-13.

Lambert, B.B.; Menges, E.S. 1996. The Effects of Light, Soil Disturbance and Presence of Organic Litter on the Field Germination and Survival of the Florida goldeneaster, Chrysopsis floridana Small. Florida Scientist. 59, 2: 121137.

Schemske, D.W.; Husband, B.C.; Ruckelshaus, M.H.; Goodwillie, C.; Parker, I.M.; Bishop, J.G. 1994. Evaluating approaches to the conservation of rare and endangered plants. Ecology. 75, 3: 584-606.

Semple, J.C. 1981. A revision of the goldenaster genus Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Ell. Nom. Cons. (Compositae-Asteraceae). Rhodora. 83, 835: 323-384.

USFWS. 1985. Proposed Endangered Status for Chrysopsis floridana (Florida Golden Aster). Federal Register. 50, 150: 31629-31632.

USFWS. 1985. Protection Sought for Four Vulnerable Plants. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 10, 9: 1, 8-9.

USFWS. 1986. Listings Become Final for Four Plants and Nine Animals. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 11, 6: 3-4.

Wallace, S.R.; McMahan, L.R. 1988. A Place in the Sun for the Plants. Garden. 12, 1: 20-23.

Personal Communications

Wallace, S.R. 1988. Letter on Recovery Efforts for Chrysopsis floridana to D.J. Wesley, Jacksonville, FL. Dated May 23, 1988. On file at CPC.

Reports

Cochrane, B.J.; Walker, L.L. 2000. Genetic Variation in Chrysopsis floridana. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

Kral, R. 1983. A report on some rare, threatened or endangered forest related vascular plants of the south. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Forest Service. p.718. USFS technical publication R8-TP2, . Vol. 1.

USFWS. 1988. Recovery Plan for Florida Golden Aster (Chrysopsis floridana). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.15.

USFWS. 1999. South Florida Multi-species Recovery Plan. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region.

Wunderlin, R.P.; Richardson, D.; Hansen, B. 1981. Status report on Chrysopsis floridana. Jacksonville, Florida: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Theses

Lambert, Belinda. The effects of light, soil disturbance and presence or organic litter on the field germination and survival of the Florida goldenaster, Chrysopsis floridana Small. [M.S.]: University of South Florida.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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