CPC National Collection Plant Profile

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Alectryon macrococcus var. auwahiensis


Family: 
Sapindaceae  
Common Names: 
'ala'alahua, mahoe
Author: 
G. Linney
Growth Habit: 
Tree
CPC Number: 
7620

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Alectryon macrococcus var. auwahiensis is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
BK contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Alectryon macrococcus var. auwahiensis


Alectryon macrococcus is a tree that can grow to 11 meters tall. It has reddish-brown branches and glossy leaves with a netted pattern of veins. Leaves are composed of two to five pairs of egg-shaped leaflets that are slightly asymmetrical. The fruit of this tree provided food for the early Hawaiians, as both the seed and the scarlet-colored, fleshy aril around it have mild but slightly sweet flavors. Unfortunately, what made this fruit appealing to Hawaiians also makes it appealing to the introduced black twig borer and imported rats. This is currently a major threat to the continued survival of the species, as fruit and seeds are eaten before they have a chance to germinate. (Wagner et al. 1999 and USFWS 1992)

There are currently two varieties recognized for this species, and both are listed as federally endangered. The first, variety macrococcus, is found on four Hawaiian islands. The second, discussed here, is variety auwahiensis and found only on the island of Maui. It differs from the other variety of Alectryon macrococcus in that its lower leaflet surface has a dense covering of rust-colored. (Wagner et al. 1999 and USFWS 1992)













Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Alectryon macrococcus var. auwahiensis
Habitat
  This species is found in diverse mesic to wet-mesic and upper dryland forest that occurs on a well-weathered substrate at elevations between 333 and 1,210 m (1,092 and 3,969 ft). (Wagner et al 1999 & USFWS 2002b)

Associates include the following native plant species: Diospyros sandwicensis, Dodonaea viscosa, Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, Alphitonia ponderosa, Santalum ellipticum, Xylosma hawaiiensis, Streblus pendulinus (aiai), Pouteria sandwicensis, or Pleomele auwahiensis. (USFWS 2002b)












Distribution
  This particular variety is found only on the island of Maui, on the south slope of the volcano Haleakala, at elevations of 1,017 and 3,562 m (1,168 and 3,337 ft). (Wagner et al. 1999 and USFWS 2002b)












Number Left
  Currently, 22 individuals of A. macrococcus var. auwahiensis are known from two populations. Both populations occur on the leeward side of the island of Maui on private and State owned lands. (USFWS 2002b)


from two populations with 22 individuals on leeward East Maui in Auwahi in the Hana District and on the ridge east of Pahihi Gulch on private and State owned (Kahikinui Forest Reserve) lands












Protection

Global Rank:  
G1T1
 
4/3/1997
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
 
12/15/1994
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
7/29/1997

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii S1 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Unknown and in need of study.












Threats
  As stated by the USFWS (2002b), threats include:
Infestations by the black twig borer
Seed predation by mice and rats
Habitat degradation by feral pigs, deer, and escaped cattle
Competition with introduced plants for resources such as light, space and water. These plants include Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass). Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu grass), Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava), and
Schinus terebinthifolius (Christmasberry).
Loss of pollinators and a depressed reproductive vigor
With only a small number of plants in a very localized area, the threat of extinction do to a natural or human-caused environmental disturbance is especially high for this taxon.












Current Research Summary
  None known.












Current Management Summary
  In April, 2002, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service determined that a designation of critical habitat was prudent for both varieties of this species. (USFWS 2002)












Research Management Needs
  Monitoring is necessary, and actions should be taken to remove the threat of browsing animals to remaining individuals.
Research and management efforts should be directed toward helping these plants successfully reproduce in the wild.












Monitoring Efforts
  Not Available












Ex Situ Needs
  Propagation and maintenance of ex situ plants is a priority.
Research is needed on long term seed storage techniques.












References

Books (Single Authors)

Hillebrand, W. 1888. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands: a description of their phanerogams and vascular cryptogams. Carl Winter, Heidelberg, Germany; Williams & Norgate, London; B. Westermann & Co., New York. 673p.

Rock, J.F. 1973. The indigenous trees of the Hawaiian Islands. Rutland, Vt.,: Charles E. Tuttle Co. 548p.

Wagner, W.L.; Bruegmann, M.M.; Herbst, D.R; Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press Honolulu.

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i--Revised Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. 1853p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Hawaiian Native Plant Genera. Gerald D. Carr, University of Hawaii Botany Department. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/natives.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Radlkofer, L.; Rock, J.F. 1911. New and noteworthy Hawaiian plants. Hawaii, Board Agric. Forest. Bot. Bull. 1: 1-15.

St. John, H. 1949. A second Hawaiian species of Alectryon (Sapindaceae): Hawaiian plant studies 17. Pacific Science. 3: 296-301.

USFWS. 1991. Proposed Endangered or Threatened Status for 15 Plants From the Island of Maui, Hawaii. Federal Register. 56: 23842-23856.

USFWS. 1992. Determination of Endangered of Threatened Status for 15 Plants From the Island of Maui, HI. Federal Register. 57, 95: 20772-20788.

USFWS. 2000. Determinations of Prudency and Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Islands of Maui and Kahoolawe, Hawaii. Federal Register. 65, 243: 143.

USFWS. 2000. Determinations of Whether Designation of Critical Habitat is Prudent for 81 Plants and Proposed Designations for 76 Plants From the Islands of Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii; [Proposed Rule]. Federal Register. 65, 216: 66807-66885.

USFWS. 2002. Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 102: 37108-37156.

USFWS. 2002. Revised Determinations of Prudency and Proposed Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Island of Molokai, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 66: 16492-16579.

USFWS. 2002. Revised Determinations of Prudency and Proposed Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species from the Islands of Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 18: 3940-4098.

USFWS. 2002. Revised Determinations of Prudency and Proposed Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Islands of Maui and Kahoolawe. Federal Register. 67, 64: 15856-15987.

Reports

MISC. 2001. Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC), Pulling Together Initiative. 2002 Project Proposal. Submitted to the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. p.14.

USFWS. 1997. Recovery Plan for the Maui Plant Cluster. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.130 pp + appendices.

Walter, K.; Falk, D.; Woolliams, K. 1988. Grant Application to the World Wildlife Fund Plant Program entitled "Establishment of Germplasm Collections of Three Endangered Hawaiian Plant Taxa". Jamaica Plain, MA: Center for Plant Conservation. p.5 + cover sheet and abstract. Grant application.


  This profile was updated on 2/19/2014
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