CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Cardamine micranthera

Photographer:
Ron Lance

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Cardamine micranthera


Family: 
Brassicaceae  
Common Name: 
small-anthered bitter-cress
Author: 
Rollins
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
754

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Cardamine micrantheraenlarge
Photographer: Ron Lance
Image Owner: North Carolina Arboretum


Cardamine micranthera is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Cardamine micranthera


This species was considered extinct for three decades, until its rediscovery in Stokes County, North Carolina in the mid-1980's. After this initial discovery, further searching led to the discovery of a total of 13 populations. The range of this species extends over two counties in the upper Piedmont region of North Carolina (NCA 1996). This species was thought extirpated from these counties in the 1950's due to conversion of this specie's habitat to pasture (USFWS 1989b). As of 1996, all remaining populations are very small, with several containing fewer than six individuals (NatureServe 2001) and all populations were located on private lands when this species was listed in 1989 (USFWS 1989b).

The small anthered bittercress is a slender, perennial herb with fibrous roots and a single, sometimes branched stem that grows from 2 to 4 dm tall. Basal leaves have one or two pair of small lateral lobes while stem leaves are alternate and mostly unlobed. Blooming and fruiting occurs in April and May. Flowers have four white petals, six stamen, and small, round anthers. The fruit is a silique that contains brown seeds that are approximately 1 mm long. This species can be distinguished from its common relative, Cardamine rotundifolia, by its smaller flowers and siliques that are only half as long as those of C. rotundifolia. (USFWS 1989b)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  North Carolina
Virginia
State Range of  Cardamine micranthera
Habitat
  Wet, boggy soils of deciduous woodlands and moist to wet soils along the edge of small to intermediate sized streams (NCA 1996).

Distribution
  Stokes County, North Carolina and an adjacent county in Virginia (NCA 1996)

Number Left
  There are nine small populations in Stokes Co., N.C. and four in the adjacent VA county (NCA 1996). Field surveys conducted by the Virginia Department of Conservation & Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in April and May 1999 almost doubled the known Virginia occurrences from 7 to 13 and expanded population numbers in the known occurrences, tripling the number of known plants in Virginia to an estimated 6000. (Virginia Department of Conservation & Recreation 1999)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
1/31/2006
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 
7/10/1991

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  North Carolina S1 E 8/2/1991  
  Virginia S1 10/26/1990  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  None known.

Threats
  Conversion of land to pasture
Logging
Nonnative invasive species
Flooding and scouring of stream banks
Impoundment or channelization of stream corridors
(USFWS 1989b)

Current Research Summary
  The NC Arboretum has been attempting to cultivate this species and has learned that cuttings will not flower and that plants do not live long enough to flower more than once in containers (NCA 1996)

Current Management Summary
  None known.

Research Management Needs
  Research is needed to determine if seed production in the remaining populations is adequate to maintain the current population sizes, given this species dependence on seed production.

Ex Situ Needs
  Germination studies to increase the number of plants in cultivation.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Radford, A.E.; Ahles, H.E.; Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1183p.

Rollins, R.C. 1993. The Cruciferae of continental North America: Systematics of the mustard family from the Arctic to Panama. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 976p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2002). New York Botanical Garden--The Virtual Herbarium. [Searchable Web site] New York Botanical Garden. Fordham Road Bronx, New York. http://scisun.nybg.org:8890/searchdb/owa/wwwspecimen.searchform. Accessed: 2002.

NatureServe. (2008). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. [Internet].Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed: (June 17, 2008).

Journal Articles

Rees, M.D. 1989. Final Listing Rules approved for 13 Species. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 14, 9-10: 8-9.

USFWS. 1988. Regional News--Regions 2, 4 & 5. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 13, 6-7: 3, 6.

USFWS. 1989. Cardamine micranthera (Small-anthered bittercress) -- Distribution: U.S.A. (NC). Listing information. Federal Register. 54: 38950.

USFWS. 1989. Proposed Endangered Status for Cardamine micranthera (Small anthered bittercress). Federal Register. 54, 20: 5095-5097.

USFWS. 1989. Small anthered bittercress determined to be endangered. Federal Register. 54, 182: 38947-38949.

Reports

1999. Status Survey for Cardamine micranthera Rollins (small-anthered bittercress) in Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation & Recreation, Natural Heritage Program.

NCA. 1996. Annual Report for the Center for Plant Conservation Taxa in the National Collection. The North Carolina Arboretum. p.5.

USFWS. 1991. Recovery plan for small-anthered bittercress (Cardamine micranthera Rollins). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Southeast Region. p.22. Author: Murdock, N. and Weakley, A.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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