CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Hedyotis st.-johnii

Photographer:
D. Lorence

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Hedyotis st.-johnii


Family: 
Rubiaceae  
Common Name: 
Na Pali Beach hedyotis
Author: 
Stone & Lane
Growth Habit: 
Subshrub, Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
6314

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Hedyotis st.-johniienlarge
Photographer: D. Lorence
Image Owner: National Tropical Botanical Garden


Hedyotis st.-johnii is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Hedyotis st.-johnii


Species in the genus Hedyotis are members of the coffee family (Rubiaceae). There are 17 recorded taxa of Hedyotis and, of these, 14 are threatened or endangered, and one is extinct. H. st.-johnii (Na Pali beach hedyotis) is a Federally endangered species, with only four populations containing around 200 individuals total known in the wild (USFWS 2001).

Na Pali beach hedyotis is a succulent perennial herb with slightly woody, trailing, quadrangular stems. Its fleshy leaves cluster towards the base of the stem. Flower clusters are borne on 7 to 15 centimeter-long flowering stems. The green flower petals are fused into a tube about 5 to 8 millimeters long and wide. The fruits are kidney-shaped with dark brown to blackish angular seeds (USFWS 1995). This species is distinguished from related species by its succulence, basally clustered fleshy leaves, shorter floral tube, and large leafy calyx lobes when in fruit (Wagner et al. 1999).

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Hedyotis st.-johnii
Habitat
  H. st.-johnii grows in the crevices of north-facing, near-vertical coastal cliff faces within the spray zone (below 75 meters) (USFWS 2000).

Associated species of H. st.-johnii include Myoporum sandwicense (naio), Eragrostis variabilis (kawelu), Lycium sandwicense (ohelo kai), Heteropogon contortus (pili), Artemisia australis (ahinahina), and Chamaesyce celastroides (akoko).

Distribution
  H. st.-johnii is distributed on State owned land on the Na Pali coast of Kaua’i: between Kalalau and Honopu beaches, in Nualolo Valley, Nualolo Kai, at Milolii Beach, and in Polihale (USFWS 1995).

Number Left
  Number of Populations: 4 (USFWS 2001)
Number of Plants: 200 (USFWS 2001)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
8/7/1990
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1991
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
9/20/1995

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii S1 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  None known.

Threats
  Threats to H. st.-johnii include:
• herbivory and habitat degradation by feral goats
• competition from alien plant species, especially Pluchea carolinensis (sour bush)
• landslides
• fire
• trampling and grazing by cattle
• a risk of extinction due to naturally occurring events (Examples of naturally occurring events include landslides or hurricanes, as well as decreased reproductive vigor because of the small population sizes.)
(USFWS 2000)

Current Research Summary
  The seeds of H. st.-johnii have been tested by the National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSL), finding that they are orthodox and can tolerate freezing and drying. The laboratory germination time was 6 months (Yoshinaga 2002).

Current Management Summary
  The National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) currently has ex situ collections of numerous seeds, representing all four populations. There are 18 individuals representing one population in the nursery, and five plants growing in the grounds of the botanical garden from an unknown locality.

Research Management Needs
  1. Map genetic diversity in the surviving populations of H. st.-johnii.
2. Test the influence of weeding and fencing on populations of H. st.-johnii.
3. Conduct pollination biology and seed dispersal studies.
4. Establish protection and management for all extant populations.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin, and M. Maunder.

Ex Situ Needs
  1. Establish secure ex situ stocks with full founder representation.
2. Develop proper horticultural protocols and pest management for H. st.-johnii.
3. Survey ex situ holdings and conduct molecular fingerprinting.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin and M. Maunder.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Wagner, W.L.; Bruegmann, M.M.; Herbst, D.R; Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press Honolulu.

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i--Revised Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. 1853p.

Electronic Sources

NatureServe. (2008). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. [Internet].Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed: (June 17, 2008).

USFWS. (2001). Unpublished data. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii 96817. Accessed: 2001.

Yoshinaga, A. (2002). Seed storage characteristics of Hawaiian species. [Web site] University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96848. http://www.hawaii.edu/scb/seed/seedtabl.html. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 2000. Determinations of Whether Designation of Critical Habitat is Prudent for 81 Plants and Proposed Designations for 76 Plants From the Islands of Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii; [Proposed Rule]. Federal Register. 65, 216: 66807-66885.

USFWS. 2002. Revised Determinations of Prudency and Proposed Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species from the Islands of Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 18: 3940-4098.

Reports

USFWS. 1995. Recovery Plan for the Kaua'i Plant Cluster. Portland, OR: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.270.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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