CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Zizania texana

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Zizania texana


Family: 
Poaceae  
Common Name: 
Texas wild-rice
Growth Habit: 
Graminoid
CPC Number: 
4456

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Zizania texanaenlarge
Image Owner: San Antonio Botanical Garden

Zizania texanaenlarge
Image Owner: San Antonio Botanical Garden


Zizania texana is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Cindy Barrett contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Zizania texana


Texas wild rice is an aquatic herbaceous perennial which can be found growing only in the cool, clear waters of the San Marcos River in Texas. This species was so abundant in the 1930's that the local irrigation company considered it difficult to keep this plant from clogging its ditches. In striking contrast, this species is now listed as federally endangered (USFWS 1978), with only a few populations known in the wild. A main cause of this decline is the fact that water has been pumped out of the Edwards Aquifer to supply water for agriculture, industry, and human use. This directly effects the spring flow of the San Marcos River, which this wild rice depends upon. Lowering of the river water levels is a major threat to the survival of this species.

Texas wild rice is related to commercially grown wild-rice, and therefore a potentially invaluable resource of hardy genetic stock.



Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Texas
State Range of  Zizania texana
Habitat
  This aquatic grass is found in the San Marcos River, forming large clones or masses of clones firmly rooted in shallow gravel beds near the middle of the river. This plant is adapted to and requires fast-flowing, high quality water at a constant year-round temperature. Critical habitat was designated in 1980. (WWF 1990; USFWS 1980)

Distribution
  Upper San Marcos River in Hays County, Texas

Number Left
  140 clumps in one unprotected population
100 plants introduced at Spring Lake, 90 surviving and doing well, starting inflorescence development
population maintained on the Southwest Texas State University campus in an outdoor cement raceway

Current distribution of wild rice extends from the uppermost part of the San Marcos River just below Spring Lake dam and throughout the critical habitat down to an area slightly below the wastewater treatment plant, except for the river portion between the Rio Vista railroad bridge and the dam above Cheatham Street.

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
1/16/2002
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 
4/8/1985

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Texas S1 E 4/2/1985  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
 

Threats
  Groundwater pumping of Edwards aquifer
Pollution from vegetation management
Stream modification by damming
Recreation--including swimming and boating in and around the populations
Nutria (aquatic rodents) eating stalks

Current Research Summary
  Research has been conducted by the Department of Biology, Southwest Texas State University and The San Marcos National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center. Dr. Mike Antolin of Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado has been doing studies on the genetics of the wild and captive populations at SWT and SMNFH&TC. Christina Walters and Darren Touchell at NSSL are working on cryopreservation techniques of Texas wild rice. (CPC Annual Report, 1998)

Current Management Summary
  In 1998, Paula Powers reported that she was working in a collaborative restoration project with Dr. Robert Doyle, North Texas State University, Denton. This project involves identifying potential restoration sites and establishing methods for transplanting Texas wild rice into the San Marcos River.

Research Management Needs
  Response to disturbance
Seed dispersal and seedling recruitment
Genetic analysis
Public education campaign
Restore/maintain the historic flow of the San Marcos River

Ex Situ Needs
 

References

Books (Single Authors)

Correll, D.S.; Johnston, M.C. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Renner: Texas Research Foundation. 1881p.

Gould, F.W. 1975. The grasses of Texas. College Station: Texas A & M Univ. Press. 653p.

Poole, J.M.; Riskind, D.H. 1987. Endangered, threatened, or protected native plants of Texas. Austin, TX: Texas Parks Wildlife Department.

Silveus, W.A. 1933. Texas grasses. San Antonio, TX: Privately published. 782p.

WWF. 1990. The official World Wildlife Fund (WWF) guide to endangered species of North America. Washington, D.C.: Beacham Publishing. 1180p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Niering, W.A. 1988. Endangered, Threatened, and Rare Wetland Plants and Animals of the Continental United States. In: Hook, D.D.; McKee, W.H.; Smith, H.K.; Gregory, J.; Burrell, V.G., Jr.; DeVoe, M.R.; Sojka, R.E.; Gilbert, S.; Banks, R.; Stolzy, L.H.; Brooks, C.; Matthews, T.D.; Shear, T.H., editors. The Ecology and Management of Wetlands. Timber Press. Portland, OR. p 592.

Conference Proceedings

Poole, J.; Janssen, G.K. Managing and Monitoring Rare and Endangered Plants on Highway Rights-of-way in Texas. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; September 11-14; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, J.; Hammond, H.D.; Holter, L., editors. 1996. USDA and US Forest Service. p 8-12.

Power, P. Reintroduction of Texas Wildrice (Zizania texana) in Spring Lake: Some Important Environmental and biotic Considerations. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; September 11-14; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, J.; Hammond, H.D.; Holter, L., editors. 1996. USDA and US Forest Service. p 179-186.

Journal Articles

Beaty, H.E. 1975. Texas wildrice. The Texas Horticulturist. 2, 1: 9-11.

Emery, W.H.P. 1967. The decline and threatened extinction of Texas wild rice (Zizania texana Hitchc.). Southwestern Naturalist. 12, 2: 189-205.

Emery, W.H.P. 1977. Current status of Texas wild rice (Zizania texana Hitchc.). Southwestern Naturalist. 22, 3: 389-406.

Emery, W.H.P.; Guy, M.N. 1979. Reproduction and embryo development in Texas Wildrice (Zizania texana Hitchc.). Journal of the Torrey Botanical Club. 106, 1: 29-31.

Fries, J.N.; Power, P. 1999. Occurrence of an aquatic lepidopteran (Parapoynx obsculralis, Pyralidae) on cultured Texas wildrice (Zizania texana, Poaceae). Southwestern Naturalist. 44, 2: 213-214.

Horne, F.; Kahn, A. 1997. Phylogeny of North American wild rice, a theory. Southwestern Naturalist. 42, 4: 423-434.

Horne, F.R.; Kahn, A. 2000. Water loss and viability in Zizania (Poaceae) seeds during short-term desiccation. American Journal of Botany. 87, 11: 1707-1711.

Judziewicz, E.J.; Soreng, R.J.; Davidse, G.; Peterson, P.M.; Filgueiras, T.S.; Zuloga, F.O. 2000. Catalog of New World Grasses (Poaceae): I. Subfamilies Anomochlooideae, Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pharoideae. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. 39, 1-128

Lemke, D.E. 1989. Aquatic macrophytes of the upper San Marcos River, Hays County, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. 34: 289-291.

Poole, J.; Bowles, D.E. 1999. Habitat characterization of Texas wild-rice (Zizania texana Hitchcock), an endangered aquatic macrophyte for the San Marcos River, TX, USA. Aquatic Conservation. 9, 3: 291-302.

Power, P. 1995. Effects of oxygen concentration and substrate on seed germination and seedling growth in Zizania texana (Texas wildrice). Southwestern Naturalist. 40, 1

Power, P. 1996. Direct and indirect effects of floating vegetation mats on Texas wildrice (Zizania texana). Southwestern Naturalist. 41, 4: 462-464.

Power, P. 1996. Effects Of Current Velocity And Substrate Composition On Growth Of Texas Wildrice (Zizania texana). Aquatic Botany. 55, 3: 199-204.

Power, P. 1996. Growth of Texas wildrice (Zizania texana) in three sediments from the San Marcos River. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 34: 21-23.

Power, P. 1997. Moisture, seeds, and reproductive failure in Texas wildrice (Zizania texana). Southwestern Naturalist. 42, 4: 435-440.

Richards, C.M.; Antolin, M.F.; Reilley, A.; Poole, J.; Walters, C. 2007. Capturing genetic diversity of wild population for ex-situ conservation: Texas wild rice (Zizania texana). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 54, 4: 837-848.

Terrell, E.E.; Emery, W.H.P.; Beaty, H.E. 1978. Observations on Zizania texana (Texas wildrice), an endangered species. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 105, 1: 50-57.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1978. Determination that 11 plant taxa are endangered species and 2 plant taxa are threatened species. Federal Register. 43, 81: 17910-17916.

USFWS. 1978. Furbish Lousewort Among 13 Plant Taxa Newly Listed by Service for Protection. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 3, 5: 1, 7-8.

USFWS. 1979. Regional Briefs--Regions 1 and 2. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 4, 3: 2.

USFWS. 1980. Correction of Proposed Critical Habitat for Four Species in Texas. Federal Register. 45, 80: 27457-27458.

USFWS. 1980. Listing of the San Marcos Salamander as Threatened, the San Marcos Gambusia as Endangered, and the Listing of Critical Habitat for Texas Wild Rice, San Marcos Salamander, Sam Marcos Gambusia and Fountain Darter. Federal Register. 45, 136: 47355-47364.

USFWS. 1980. Service Determines Status, Critical Habitat for four San Marcos River Species. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 5, 8: 10-11.

Vertucci, C.W.; Crane, J.; Porter, R.A.; Oelke, E.A. 1994. Physical properties of water in Ziznia embryos in relation to maturity status, water content and temperature. Seed Science Research. 4: 221-224.

Vertucci, C.W.; Crane, J.; Porter, R.A.; Oelke, E.A. 1995. Survival of Zizania embryos in relation to water content, temperature and maturity status. Seed Science Research. 5: 31-40.

Reports

Beaty, H.E. 1976. Transplanting Zizania texana (Texas wildrice) in Bell County, Texas.

Fonteyn, P.J.; Power, P. 1990. Wildrice Assessment Study Quartery Report. Southwest Texas State University. Contract Number 14-16-0002-82-222.

Poole, J.; Bowles, D.E. 1996. Texas Wild-Rice (Zizania texana Hitchcock) Habitat Characterization. Austin, TX: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. p.16. Submitted in fulfillment of the final report requirement of grant E-1-8 entitled Endangered and Threatened Species Conservation, project #49.

Rose, F.; Power, P. 1994. Continued Maintenance, Reintroduction and Research on Zizania texana (Texas wildrice). IV. Growth response by Zizania texanaunder three current regimes and two sediments in Spring Lake, Hays Co., Texas. Submitted to Texas Parks and Wildlife.

Rose, F.; Power, P. 1995. Continued Maintenance, Reintroduction and Research on Zizania texana (Texas wildrice). I. Growth in three sediments by Zizania texana from the Conservation Program at Southwest Texas State University. Submitted to Texas Parks and Wildlife.

Rose, F.; Power, P. 1996. Continued Maintenance, Reintroduction and Research on Zizania texana (Texas wildrice). V. Maintenance of the Texas wildrice (Zizania texana) Conservation Population on the Southwest Texas State University Campus. Submitted to Texas Parks and Wildlife.

Rose, F.; Power, P.; Doyle, R.D. 1994. Continued Maintenance, Reintroduction and Research on Zizania texana (Texas wildrice). III. Carbon source for submerged leaves of the endangered Zizia texana (Texas wildrice). Submitted to Texas Parks and Wildlife.

USFWS. 1984. San Marcos recovery plan for the San Marcos River endangered and threatened species. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.

USFWS. 1996. San Marcos/Comal (Revised) Recovery Plan. Albuquerque, New Mexico: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.x + 93 with 28 pages of appendices.

Theses

Beaty, H.E. 1972. Zizania texana Hitchc. (Texas wildrice): a rare and endangered species. [M.S. Thesis]: Baylor University. Waco, TX.

Kahn, Ari Benjamin. 1996. Aspects of the molecular phylogeny of three species of the wild rice genus Zizania, based on nuclear rDNA sequences. [M.S. Thesis]: Southwest Texas State University. San Marcos, Texas.

Pennington, Toni. 1999. Identifying sediment nutrients that further characterize the habitat associated with the endangered Texas wildrice (Zizania texana Hitch.). [M.S. Thesis]: Southwest Texas State University.

Powers, P.J. 1990. Effects of oxygen concentration and substrate on seed germination and seeding growth of Zizania texana (Texas wildrice). [M.S. Thesis]: Southwest Texas State University. San Marcos. 36p.

Vaughan, Joe Ernest, Jr. 1986. Population and autecological assessment of Ziziania texana hitchc. (Poaceae) in the San Marcos River. [M.S. Thesis]: Southwest Texas State University. San Marcos, Texas. 29 plus appendicesp.


  This profile was updated on 9/28/2010
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