CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Warea amplexifolia

Photographer:
Kay Maddox

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Warea amplexifolia


Family: 
Brassicaceae  
Common Names: 
clasping warea, wide-leaf Warea
Author: 
(Nutt.) Nutt.
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
4409

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Warea amplexifoliaenlarge
Photographer: Kay Maddox

Warea amplexifoliaenlarge
Photographer: Kay Maddox


Warea amplexifolia is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
S.K. Maddox contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Warea amplexifolia


Warea amplexifolia is also known as 'clasping warea' or 'wide-leaf warea'. Clasping warea is an erect annual herb in the mustard family. These plants grow from 30 to 100 cm tall. The stalk may be unbranched, or often branching midway up the stem. The leaves of a young plant are slightly folded along the midrib, tipped upward, and the lobes at the base of the leaves reach around the stem. This characteristic led to the common name of clasping warea, and it can be used in field identification even when the plants are not in flower (USFWS 1999). The flowers of this summer annual herb are showy and are borne in small, rounded, puff-like clusters at the ends of the branches. Each flower has four pale purple petals with a rounded upper portion and an elongated stalk-like lower portion (USFWS 1991). The fruit is very distinctive, and helps to readily identify the plant. As the stalks turn brown and the leaves whither, the seeds are found in clusters of narrow down-curving seed pods, from 5 to 7 cm long. The pods split longitudinally, with small black seeds (USFWS 1999).

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Florida
State Range of  Warea amplexifolia
Habitat
  Clasping warea is endemic to high pine (or sandhill) habitat, and is limited to dry, open woodlands. In this habitat, there is a relatively high diversity of herbaceous ground cover, especially wiregrass (USFWS 1999). This habitat is found on the Lake Wales Ridge, an elongated area of raised and usually dry soils, with elevations up to about 300 feet. The ridge extends from Central Highlands County northward, gradually disappearing in southern Marion County (USFWS 1999).

Distribution
  The present distribution of W. amplexifoila includes Lake, Polk, and Osceola counties. It is believed that at one time clasping warea's range included Lake County, western Orange County, extreme northwestern Osceola County and northern Polk County (USFWS 1999).

Number Left
  There have been more than 20 sites discovered, but several have recently been destroyed and most are threatened by development and lack of fire (FNAI 2000).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
2/29/2000
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
2/17/1993

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Florida S1 LE 4/1/1998  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  In addition to clasping warea, the high pine, or sandhill, habitat is home to long leaf and sand pines, scrubbyoaks, Florida rosemary, and reindeer moss (USFWS 1991). Wiregrass is the native dominate grass, and it is believed that claspingwarea and wiregrass depend on similar fire regimes.
There are four species of ants that occur around W. amplexifolia at Lake Griffin State Recreation Area, and it is believed that these ants help disperse warea seeds (USFWS 1999).

Threats
  Loss of habitat to development and mining.
Exclusion of Fire.

Current Research Summary
  Historic Bok Sanctuary (formerly Bok Tower Gardens) has researched methods for propagating clasping warea. They have learned that direct seeding in the field is more effective than propagating under greenhouse conditions. When planted out, the greenhouse-grown plants died before flowering due to the destructive action of leaf minors, fungus, and unknown causes (USFWS 1999).

Current Management Summary
  The Nature Conservancy, Lake Wales Ridge Office, currently manages, including prescribed burns, lands that include sites for Warea amplexifolia. At Lake Griffin State Recreation Area, exotic pest plants, as well as oaks are treated for removal to open up the sand areas. At the Mountain Lake site near Bok Tower Gardens, the residents have formed a conservation committee that may provide an opportunity to establish a cooperative agreement for management of the remnant high pine habitat on private property (USFWS 1999).

Research Management Needs
  Field experiments to determine the influence of wiregrass on the fire ecology of W. amplexifolia.
Protect privately owned sandhills by purchase or conservation easement.
Manage sites with fire and monitor its effects on clasping warea.
Eradicate exotic pest species.
Establish new populations in conservation areas.
(USFWS 1999).

Ex Situ Needs
  Conserve germplasm.
Maintain national collection.
(USFWS. 1999)

References

Books (Single Authors)

Coile, N.C. 2000. Notes on Florida's Regulated Plant Index (Rule 5B-40), Botany Contribution 38. Gainesville, Florida: Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.

Ward, D.B. 1979. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida Volume 5: Plants. Gainseville, FL: University Presses of Florida.

WWF. 1990. The official World Wildlife Fund (WWF) guide to endangered species of North America. Washington, D.C.: Beacham Publishing. 1180p.

Books (Sections)

Myers, R.L. 1990. Scrub and High Pine. Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press. Orlando, FL.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. [Web site] University of South Florida Institute for Systematic Botany. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/isb/default.htm. Accessed: 2008.

Denton, S. (2001). Photo Library of Native and Naturalized Plants of Florida. Biological Research Associates. http://www.biolresearch.com/Plants/index.php?id=C. Accessed: 2002.

USGS. (2002). Status of Listed Species and Recovery Plan Development. [Web site] USGS: Norther Prairie Wildlife Research Center. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/others/recoprog/plant.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Bard, A.M. 1996. Sandhill Restoration for Warea amplexifolia at Lake Griffin State Recreation Area. Restoration and Management Notes. 14, 2: 192.

Channel, R.B.; James, C.W. 1964. Nomenclatural and taxonomic corrections in Warea (Cruciferae). Rhodora. 66: 18-26.

Shinners, L.H. 1962. Warea auriculata instead of W. amplexifolia of Small (Cruciferae). Rhodora. 64

USFWS. 1987. Endangered status for Warea amplexifolia (wide-leaf warea). Federal Register. 52, 82: 15501-15505.

USFWS. 1995. Recovery Updates. Endangered Species Bulletin. 20, 6: 26.

Wallace, S.R. 1991. Central Florida Scrub: Trying to Save the Pieces. Endangered Species UPDATE. 8, 1: 60-62.

Reports

1994. Experimental reintroduction project for Warea amplexifolia. Anonymous report by Bok Tower Gardens. Jacksonville, Florida: 1 March 1994. Files of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Bennington, C.C. 1999. Reproduction of an Endangered Crucifer, Warea amplexifolia. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

Bennington, C.C. 2000. Reproduction of an Endangered Crucifer, Warea amplexifolia (addendum). Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

Judd, W.S. 1980. Status report on Warea amplexifolia. Jacksonville, Florida: Unpublished report prepared under contract with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Menges, E.S. 1995. Report on Experimental Research and Monitoring of Four Species of Endangered Plants on the Lake Wales Ridge, Florida. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

Menges, E.S.; Weekley, Carl W. 1999. Final Report on Continued Ecological Monitoring and Experimental Research on Four Florida Scrub Endemic Plants. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

Menges, E.S.; Yahr, R. 1996. Continued Ecological Monitoring and Research on Four Florida Scrub Plants. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

Menges, E.S.; Yahr, R. 1998. Final Report on Continued Ecological Monitoring and Experimental Research on Four Florida Scrub Endemic Plants. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

Reese, G.A.; Orzell, S. 1995. A Natural Areas Inventory of Lake County, Florida. Appendix I: Element Occurrence Data. Talahassee, FL: Lake County Water Authority and Florida Natural Areas Inventory.

Stout, I.J. 1996. Annual Report-Proposal to Study Lupinus aridorum, Warea amplexifolia, and Dicerandra immaculata. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

Stout, I.J.; Black, D. 2000. Management, Monitoring and Basic Life History Studies of Warea amplexifolia. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

Stout, I.J.; Black, Dameron. 1999. Management, Monitoring and Basic Life History Studies of Warea amplexifolia. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

Stout, Jack I.; Black, Dameron; Woiak, Sandy. 1998. Final Report-Proposal to Study Lupinus aridorum, Warea amplexifolia and Dicerandra immaculata. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Division of Forestry: Statewide Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Program.

USFWS. 1993. Warea amplexifolia Recovery Plan. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.15.

USFWS. 1999. South Florida Multi-species Recovery Plan. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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