CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Spiranthes diluvialis

Photographer:
Deb Clark

Heading for profile page
CPC Home Join now
About CPC
CPC National Collection
Conservation Directory Resources
Invasive Plant Species Plant News
Plant Links Participating Institutions
Contribute
Search CPC
Search    Alphabetical List    Reference Finder    CPC Home


CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Spiranthes diluvialis


Family: 
Orchidaceae  
Common Names: 
Ute ladies'-tresses, Ute lady's tresses
Author: 
Sheviak
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
4077

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


Profile Links
 ITIS
 Tropicos
 PLANTS
 Fish & WildLife
 Forest Service

Spiranthes diluvialisenlarge
Photographer: Deb Clark
deb_clark[at]nps.gov
Image Owner: BLM


Spiranthes diluvialis is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Lucy Jordan and Sylvia Torti contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Spiranthes diluvialis


A beautiful perennial, terrestrial orchid with cream colored flowers. The orchid grow in moist soils on primary or secondary flood plains of rivers or wet, open meadows and springs. This species is known from populations in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Colorado
Idaho
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
Utah
Washington
Wyoming
State Range of  Spiranthes diluvialis
Habitat
  Silty loam alluvial soils associated with wetlands or floodplains of perennial streams in intermontane valleys.

Distribution
  Currently found in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.

Number Left
  Approximately 60,000 individuals, generally distributed as localized clusters of small colonies (10 – 50 individuals). There are large populations (several thousand individuals) in three states.

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2G3
 
5/6/2008
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LT
 
1/17/1992
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
12/15/1995

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Colorado S2 1  
  Idaho S1  
  Montana S2  
  Nebraska S1  
  Nevada SH  
  Utah S1 6/1/1998  
  Washington S1  
  Wyoming S1  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  This orchid has extremely small seeds that likely require mycorrhizal fungi to germinate and establish. Anthophorans (Anthophora spp) and bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are the most important pollinators of this species (Sipes and Tepedino 1995). As the orchid only provides nectar to pollinators, other flowering plants must be present in the vicinity to attract pollinators and meet pollinator needs. The orchid requires soils that are moist to the surface throughout the growing season (it flowers in late summer). The orchid appears tolerant of disturbance caused by natural fluvial processes.

Threats
  • Habitat loss, fragmentation, or alteration
• Modification of hydrology of occupied or potentially suitable habitat
• Grazing each year during the flowering period
• Pollinators and their habitat must be protected to insure adequate reproduction
• Invasive plant species

Current Research Summary
  • The orchid has been grown from seed at the Center for Research of Endangered Wildlife (CREW) facility at the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden.
• Tepedino is studying the reproductive biology of this species (Tepedino 2002; Tepedino and Sipes 2000)
• McGonigle is studying the root associated fungi of this species (McGonigle and Sheridan 2004)

Current Management Summary
  Currently, this species is managed as a federally threatened species.

Research Management Needs
  • To adequately access population size. Not all individuals are above-ground or flower every year and the orchid cannot be definitively detected except when it is flowering. The number of flowering individuals fluctuates markedly from year to year, making censusing difficult.
• Protect watershed areas to insure key orchid habitat.
• Restore natural fluvial processes and stream channel complexity to ensure formation and maintenance of occupied and suitable habitat.
• Control invasive plant species in occupied and suitable habitat.
• Understand and manage for suitable pollinator habitat.

Ex Situ Needs
  Determine how to grow plantlets produced at the Center for Research of Endangered Wildlife (CREW) into adult plants and then the re-introduction of these adults into natural habitat.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Spackman, S.; Jennings, B.; Coles, J.; Dawson, C.; Minton, M.; Kratz, A.; Spurrier, C.; Skadelandl, T. 1997. Colorado Rare Plant Field Guide. Fort Collins, CO: Prepared for the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program.

Books (Sections)

Tepedino, V.J. 2002. Section III. Environmental Monitoring. III.5 The Reproductive Biology of Rare Rangeland Plants and Their Vulnerability to Insecticides. Grasshoppers: Their biology, identification and management, User Handbook.

Conference Proceedings

Arft, A.M.; Ranker, T.A. Abstract: Ecology of the rare orchid Spiranthes diluvialis: Implications for conservation. University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Department of EPO Biology and University Museum,.

Arft, A.M.; Ranker, T.A. Population Genetics and Phylogenetic Systematics of the Rare Orchid Spiranthes diluvialis: Implications for Conservation. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; 30 March - 2 April; Santa Fe, NM. In: Sivinski, R.; Lightfoot, K., editors. 1992. New Mexico Forestry and Resources Conservation Division. p 264-269.

Clark, D.J.; Groebner, C.M. Determining Habitat Potential and Surveying for Nine Rare Plant Species in South-Central Utah. Southwestern rare and endangered plants: proceedings of the third conference; September 25-28; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, Joyce; Holter, Louella, editors. 2000. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fort Collins, CO (Proceedings RMRS-P-23). p 38-43.

Heidel, B.L. Abstract for discussion: Wetland habitat of the Threatened Plant, Spiranthes diluvialis in Montana. Proceedings: Conserving Montana's Rare Plants and Special Habitats; Missoula, MT. 1997.

Heil, K.D.; Porter, M.; Flemming, R.; Rome, W. Rare Plant Diversity Between Capital Reef National Park and Canyonlands, Arches National Parks and Bridges National Monument of Southeastern Utah. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; 30 March - 2 April; Santa Fe, NM. In: Sivinski, R.; Lightfoot, K., editors. 1992. New Mexico Forestry and Resources Conservation Division. p 78-102.

Pierson, K.; Tepedino, V.J.; Sipes, S.; Kuta, K. Pollination Ecology of the Rare Orchid, Spiranthes diluvialis; Implications for Conservation. Southwestern rare and endangered plants: proceedings of the third conference; September 25-28; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, Joyce; Holter, Louella, editors. 2000. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fort Collins, CO (Proceedings RMRS-P-23). p 153-164.

Sipes, S.D.; Tepedino, V.J.; Bowlin, W.R. The Pollination and Reproductive Ecology of Spiranthes diluvialis Sheviak (Orchidaceae). Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; 30 March - 2 April; Santa Fe, NM. In: Sivinski, R.; Lightfoot, K., editors. 1992. New Mexico Forestry and Resources Conservation Division. p 320-333.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Rare Plant Profiles. [Searchable Web site] State of Utah Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife Resources. http://www.utahcdc.usu.edu/rsgis2/Search/SearchSelection.asp?Group=PLANT&Species=PLANT. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Arft, A.M.; Ranker, T.A. 1998. Allopolyploid origin and population genetics of the rare orchid Spiranthes diluvialis. American Journal of Botany. 85, 1: 110-122.

Heidel, B.L. 1996. Noteworthy collections - Montana. Madroρo. 43, 3: 436-440.

O'Kane, S.L. 1988. Colorado's rare flora. Great Basin Naturalist. 48, 4: 434-484.

Sheviak, C.J. 1984. Spiranthes-Diluvialis New Species Orchidaceae from the Western USA. Brittonia. 36, 1: 8-14.

Sheviak, C.J. 1990. A New Spiranthes Orchidaceae from the Cienegas of Southernmost Arizona USA. Rhodora. 92, 872: 213-231.

Sipes, S.D.; Tepedino, V.J. 1995. Reproductive Biology of the Rare Orchid, Spiranthes diluvialis - Breeding System, Pollination, and Implications for Conservation. Conservation Biology. 9, 4: 929-938.

Szalanski, A.L.; Steinauer, G.; Bischof, R.; Petersen, J. 2001. Origin and conservation genetics of the threatened Ute ladies' tresses, Spiranthes diluvialis (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany. 88, 1: 177-180.

Tepedino, V.J. 1997. Wild Bees and Floral Jewels. Wings. 20, 1: 8-10.

Tepedino, V.J. 2000. Wild Bees and Floral Jewels. Castilleja: The Newsletter of the Wyoming Native Plant Society. 19, 4: 6-8.

Tepedino, V.J.; Sipes, S.D. 2000. Can a transplanted pollinator increase reproductive success in populations of the threatened orchid, Spiranthes diluvialis?. Ecological Restoration. 18, 2: 132-133.

USFWS. 1990. Listing Proposals--November 1990. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 15, 12: 4.

USFWS. 1990. Proposal to List the Plant Spiranthes diluvialis (Ute ladies' tresses) as a Threatened Species. Federal Register. 55, 219: 47347-47350.

USFWS. 1991. Reopening of Comment Period on Proposed Threatened Status for Spiranthes diluvialis (Ute ladies' tresses). Federal Register. 56, 22: 4028-4029.

USFWS. 1992. Final Rule to List the Plant Spiranthes diluvialis (Ute ladies' tresses) as a Threatened Species. Federal Register. 57, 12: 2048-2054.

Reports

2000. Final Report: A Rare Plant Survey of the Rocky Reach Reservoir. Report prepared by Calypso Consulting for Public Utility District No. 1 of Chelan County, Wenatchee, WA. p.45. Rocky Reach Hydroelectric Project FERC Project No.

Arft, A.M. 1994. Final report on Spiranthes diluvialis. Colorado Natural Areas Program. Unpublished.

Atwood, Duane; DeBolt, Ann. 2000. Field Guide to the Special Status Plants of the Bureau of Land Management Lower Snake River District. A Bureau of Land Management Challenge Cost Share Project with Duane Atwood.

Coyner, J. 1991. Ute Ladies' Tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis). Salt Lake City, UT: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.29.

Fertig, W. 2000. Status review of the Ute ladies tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis) in Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming: Report prepared for the Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and Wyoming Game and Fish Department by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database.

Heidel, B.L. 1998. Conservation status of Spiranthes diluvialis Sheviak in Montana. Helena: Unpublished report to U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Montana Natural Heritage Program. p.55 + a.

Jennings, W.F. 1989. Final Report for Eustoma grandiflorum, Spiranthes diluvialis, Malaxdis brachypoda, Hypoxis hirsuta, Physaria belli, and Aletes humilis. Boulder, CO: The Nature Conservancy.

Jennings, W.F. 1990. Final report for Spiranthes diluvialis and Sisyrinchium pallidum. Boulder, Colorado: The Nature Conservancy. unpublished report.

Moseley, R.K. 1997. Ute ladies' tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis) inventory: Fort Hall Fish Hatchery Sites. Conservation Data Center. p.6.

Moseley, R.K. 2000. Ute Ladies Tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis) in Idaho: Part A: 1999 Status Report. Upper Snake River District, Bureau of Land Management & Targhee National Forest, U.S. Forest Service.

MTNHP. 2002. Montana Rare Plant Field Guide. Montana Natural Heritage Program.

Murphy, C. 2000. Ute Ladies Tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis) in Idaho: Part B: 2000 Status Report. Upper Snake River District, Bureau of Land Management & Targhee National Forest, U.S. Forest Service.

Murphy, C. 2002. Ute Ladies Tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis) in Idaho: 2001 Status Report. Upper Snake River District, Bureau of Land Management, and Caribou-Targhee National Forest, U.S. Forest Service.

NNHP. 2001. Nevada Rare Plant Atlas: Index to Maps and Fact Sheets. Portland, Oregon and Reno, Nevada: Carson City: Nevada Natural Heritage Program, compiled for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Grant EP-3-12.

USFWS. 1995. Ute ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis) recovery plan. Denver, Colorado: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

WNHP. 1999. Field Guide to Selected Rare Vascular Plants of Washington. Produced as part of a cooperative project between the Washington Department of Natural Resources, Washington Natural Heritage Program, and the U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, Spokane District.

Theses

Arft, A.M. 1995. The genetics, demography, and conservation management of the rare orchid Spiranthes diluvialis. [Ph.D. dissertation]: University of Colorado. Boulder. 170p.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
California
Oregon
Washington
Idaho
Nevada
Arizona
Utah
Montana
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Oklahoma
Texas
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
Arkansas
Louisiana
Wisconsin
Illinois
Michigan
Michigan
Indiana
Ohio
Kentucky
Tennessee
Mississippi
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
South Carolina
North Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
New Jersey
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Vermont
New Hampshire
Maine
New York
New York
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii