CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Solidago shortii

Photographer:
Casey Galvin

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Solidago shortii


Family: 
Asteraceae  
Common Name: 
Short's goldenrod
Author: 
Torr. & Gray
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
4048

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Solidago shortiienlarge
Photographer: Casey Galvin


Solidago shortii is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Kimberlie McCue, Ph.D. contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Solidago shortii


Short's goldenrod is named after its discoverer, Dr. Charles Short, who found the plant in 1840 growing on a limestone outcrop in Kentucky known as Rock Island. This island was located within the Falls of the Ohio River between Clarksville, Indiana and Louisville, Kentucky. Construction of locks and a dam at the Falls in the early 1900's altered the Island to the point that the species was considered extinct for a number of decades. However, in 1939 E. Lucy Braun, a well-known ecologist, discovered a population in the Blue Lick Springs area of eastern Kentucky. Until 2002, this and another location in Kentucky contained the only known populations of this species in the world. However, in 2002, ecologists with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Division
of Nature Preserves discovered a new population of this species--the first in the state--while conducting a botanical and natural area inventory. (Braun 1941; Indiana Department of Natural Resources 2002)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Kentucky
State Range of  Solidago shortii
Habitat
  Occurs in a variety of dry, mostly open habitats with shallow, clay soils, including limestone glades, edges of open woods, old fields, power line rights-of-way and rock ledges along highways. (USFWS 1988)

Occurs with Juniperus virginiana, Cercis canadensis, Cornus drummondii, Solidago nemoralis

Distribution
  Endemic to a 12.2 km2 area of Kentucky (USFWS 1988).

Number Left
  Over 73,000 shoots in 14 populations in three counties in Kentucky, however, the large number of stems may represent only a few unique genotypes (Buchele 1989) (see Research Summary)
One recently discovered population in southern Indiana contains an unknown number of individuals (Indiana Department of Natural Resources 2002).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
7/15/2004
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
9/5/1985
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
5/25/1988

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Kentucky S1 E 7/1/1997  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Solidago shortii reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes and sexually by seeds. Its bright yellow flowers are self-incompatible, so they require cross pollination by insects. The goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus, is the most frequent visitor to flowers of this species.

Threats
  Inadvertent trampling and destruction
Habitat modification or loss
Over-collecting
Destructive fires
(USFWS 1988)

Current Research Summary
  Research has been performed on the following topics:
Plant propagation
Ecological life history and reproductive biology
Ecophysiology
Demography
Seed germination rates under varying conditions
Genetic analyses of Solidago shortii are being conducted by Pat Calie (of Eastern Kentucky University) and colleagues

Current Management Summary
  Many Solidago shortii plants are located in a 1.5-acre area that has been dedicated as a nature preserve.
Most populations are being managed, either advertently or inadvertently, to keep each site in an early state of succession. This includes periodic removal of woody vegetation, as well as selective cutting and burning, grazing and mowing.

Research Management Needs
  Research in the following areas is needed:
Causes for variation in seedling survivorship among sites
Reasons for limited population establishment and growth
Possible mycorrhizal relationship

Management considerations include:
Consider establishing additional populations within the historic range

Ex Situ Needs
  Seed storage
Assess genetic variation

References

Electronic Sources

(2002). One of world's rarest plants discovered in Indiana. Indiana Department of Natural Resources. http://www.state.in.us/dnr/naturepr/pdf/shorts.pdf. Accessed: 2002.

USFWS. (1990). Endangered and Threatened Species Accounts. [Web page] U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Endangered Species. http://ecos.fws.gov/servlet/TESSSpeciesQuery. Accessed: 2002.

USGS. (2002). Status of Listed Species and Recovery Plan Development. [Web site] USGS: Norther Prairie Wildlife Research Center. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/others/recoprog/plant.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1985. A floristic study of a cedar glade in Bluelicks Battlefield State Park Kentucky USA. Castanea. 50, 1: 19-25.

Baskin, J.M.; Snyder, K.M.; Walck, J.L.; Baskin, C.C. 1997. The comparative autecology of endemic, globally-rare, and geographically-widespread, common plant species: Three case studies. Southwestern Naturalist. 42, 4: 384-399.

Baskin, J.M.; Walck, J.L.; Baskin, C.C.; Buchele, D.E. 2000. Ecology and the Conservation Biology of the Endangered Plant Species Solidago shortii (Asteraceae). Native Plants Journal. 1, 1: 35-41.

Beck, J.B.; Naczi, R.F.C.; Calie, P.J. 1999. Lectotypification of Solidago shortii (Asteraceae), with Considerations of the Historical and Intellectual Circumstances Surrounding the Original Species Description in Torrey and Gray's Flora of North America. Harvard papers in botany. 4, 2: 417.

Beck, J.B.; Naczi, R.F.C.; Calie, P.J. 2001. Insights into the species delineation and population structure of Solidago shortii (Asteraceae) through morphometric analysis. Rhodora. 103, 914: 151-171.

Braun, E.L. 1941. A new locality for Solidago shortii. Rhodora. 43: 484.

Buchele, D.E.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1989. Ecology of the Endangered Species Solidago shortii. I. Geography , populations, and Physical Habitat. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116, 4: 344-355.

Buchele, D.E.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1991. Ecology of the Endangered Species Solidago shortii. II. Ecological Life Cycle. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118, 3: 281-287.

Buchele, D.E.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1991. Ecology of the Endangered Species Solidago shortii. III. Seed Germination Ecology. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118, 3: 288-291.

Buchele, D.E.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1992. Ecology of the Endangered Species Solidago shortii. IV. Pollination Ecology. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 119, 2: 137-141.

Buchele, D.E.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1992. Ecology of the Endangered Species Solidago shortii. V. Plant Associates. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 119, 2: 208-213.

Tremblay, R.L.; Zimmerman, J.K.; Lebron, L. 1998. Host specificity and low reproductive success in the rare endemic Puerto Rican orchid Lepanthes caritensis. Biological Conservation. 85, 3: 297-304.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1997. A comparative study of seed germination biology of a narrow endemic and two geographically-widespread species of Solidago (Asteraceae). 3. Photoecology of germination. Seed Science Research. 7, 3: 293-301.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1997. A comparative study of the seed germination biology of a narrow endemic and two geographically-widespread species of Solidago (Asteraceae). 1. Germination phenology and effect of cold stratification on germination. Seed Science Research. 7, 1: 47-58.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1997. A comparative study of the seed germination biology of a narrow endemic and two geographically-widespread species of Solidago (Asteraceae). 5. Effect of dry storage on after-ripening and survivorship. Seed Science Research. 7, 3: 311-318.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1997. A comparative study of the seed germination biology of a narrow endemic and two geographically-widespread species of Solidago (Asteraceae) .4. Role of soil moisture in regulating germination. Seed Science Research. 7, 3: 303-309.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1997. A comparative study of the seed germination biology of a narrow endemic and two geographically-widespread species of Solidago (Asteraceae). 2. Germination responses of buried seeds in relation to seasonal temperature cycles. Seed Science Research. 7, 2: 209-220.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1998. A comparative study of the seed germination biology of a narrow endemic and two geographically-widespread species of Solidago (Asteraceae). 6. Seed bank. Seed Science Research. 8: 6574.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1999. Ecology of the endangered species Solidago shortii. VI. Effects of habitat type, leaf litter, and soil type on seed germination. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 126, 2: 117-123.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1999. Ecology of the endangered species Solidago shortii. VII. Survivorship and flowering, and comparison with common, geographically-widespread Solidago species. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 126, 2: 124-132.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1999. Effects of competition from introduced plants on establishment, survival, growth and reproduction of the rare plant Solidago shortii (Asteraceae). Biological Conservation. 88, 2: 213-219.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1999. Relative competitive abilities and growth characteristics of a narrowly endemic and a geographically widespread Solidago species (Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany. 86, 6: 820-828.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1999. Roles of succession, light, nutrients and disturbance on population vigor and maintenance of the rare plant Solidago shortii (Asteraceae). Plant Ecology. 145, 1: 133-147.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 2000. Increased sensitivity to green light during transition from conditional dormancy to nondormancy in seeds of three species of Solidago (Asteraceae). Seed Science Research. 10, 4: 495-499.

Walck, J.L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 2001. Why is Solidago shortii narrowly endemic and S. altissima geographically widespread? A comprehensive comparative study of biological traits. Journal of Biogeography. 28: 1221-1237.

Reports

USFWS. 1988. Short's Goldenrod Recovery Plan. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.27.

Theses

Walck, Jeffrey Lee. 1998. Comparative autecology of the narrow endemic Solidago shortii and two of it geographically widespread congeners: An investigation into the causes of plant rarity and endemism. [Ph.D. Thesis]: University of Kentucky. 444p.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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