CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Sagittaria fasciculata

Photographer:
Rob Gardner

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Sagittaria fasciculata


Family: 
Alismataceae  
Common Names: 
bunched arrowhead, bunched brrowhead
Author: 
E.O. Beal
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
3791

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Sagittaria fasciculataenlarge
Photographer: Rob Gardner
Image Owner: North Carolina Botanical Garden


Sagittaria fasciculata is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Sagittaria fasciculata


Endemic to two counties of the Carolinas, this aquatic herb has a severely threatened habitat. The mountain bogs in which Sagittaria fasciculata occurs have been drained for residential development and pasture. In the few remaining suitable sites, the population growth of nearby cities presents the continual threat of disturbance. Several other rare plants share the restricted habitat of Sagittaria fasciculata, making the protection of these areas a top priority.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  North Carolina
South Carolina
State Range of  Sagittaria fasciculata
Habitat
  Mountain bogs, partially shaded seeps with constant but moderate water flow, where it typically inhabits a narrow band at the bluff-floodplain ecotone (USFWS 1983).

Distribution
  Henderson County, North Carolina and Greenville County, South Carolina (USFWS 1983).

Number Left
  7 element occurrences in North Carolina, 26 element occurrences in South Carolina (USFWS 1983).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
12/11/2006
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
9/8/1983

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  North Carolina S1 E 1/1/2002  
  South Carolina S1 FE/SE 6/12/1985  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  No evidence of reproduction by seed has been found; all plants in an area may be connected by underground rhizomes. (USFWS 1990)

Threats
  Habitat destruction (drainage of seeps for residential/commercial development)
Disturbance by livestock
Competition with other species for space, nutrients (encroachment of woody spp., shading by exotic weeds)
Change in water flow rates
(USFWS 1990)

Current Research Summary
  Newberry (1991) evaluated the effect of artificial reduction of interspecific competition on growth and reproduction, and performed demographic and longevity studies. Results showed that Sagittaria fasciculata is sensitive to changes in flow rates and silt deposition. Interspecific competition for light, nutrients and space was also found to be a major factor affecting growth and survival.
Plants have been successfully grown by tissue culture by Valerie Pence at the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanic Gardens.

Current Management Summary
  The South Carolina Heritage Trust has begun efforts to protect a number of populations through agreements with landowners. In cooperation with Duke Power Company, they have also conducted experimental management of populations in a power line right-of-way.
The Nature Conservancy of North Carolina and Southern Railway are cooperatively managing sites in NC, and the Nature Conservancy and General Electric Company have signed a similar management agreement.
The North Carolina Plant Protection Program has conducted one site restoration and reintroduction in a historical mountain bog
(USFWS 1983)

Research Management Needs
  Research on reproductive biology
Propagation and reintroduction studies
Monitor existing populations, search for additional populations or sites suitable for reintroduction
Weeding as a management strategy to reduce competition

Ex Situ Needs
  Germination protocol needed.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Committee, Flora of North America Editorial. 1993. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 1. Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cooper, J.E.; Robinson, S.S.; Funderburg, J.B. 1977. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of North Carolina. Raleigh, NC.: North Carolina State Museum Natural History. 444p.

Massey, J.R.; Otte, D.K.S.; Atkinson, T.A.; Whetstone, R.D. 1983. An Atlas and Illustrated Guide to the Threatened and Endangered Vascular Plants of the Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia. Asheville, NC: Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 218p.

Radford, A.E.; Ahles, H.E.; Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1183p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2002). NC-ES Plant profiles. [Web pages] North Carolina Ecological Services--U.S. Fish & Wildlife Services--Southeast Region 4. http://nc-es.fws.gov/plant/plant.html. Accessed: 2002.

(2002). New York Botanical Garden--The Virtual Herbarium. [Searchable Web site] New York Botanical Garden. Fordham Road Bronx, New York. http://scisun.nybg.org:8890/searchdb/owa/wwwspecimen.searchform. Accessed: 2002.

USFWS. (1990). Endangered and Threatened Species Accounts. [Web page] U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Endangered Species. http://ecos.fws.gov/servlet/TESSSpeciesQuery. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Beal, E.O. 1960. The Alismataceae of the Carolinas. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 76, 1: 68-79.

Newberry, G. 1991. Factors Affecting the Survival of the Rare Plant, Sagittaria fasciculata E.O. Beal (Alismataceae). Castanea. 56, 1: 59-64.

USFWS. 1979. Determination that Sagittaria fasciculate is an endangered species. Federal Register. 44, 144: 43700-43701.

USFWS. 1979. Regional Briefs--Region 4. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 4, 4: 2.

USFWS. 1979. Regional Briefs--Region 4. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 4, 5: 3.

Reports

1985. Experimental transplantation of Sagittaria fasciculata, a nationally endangered plant species. North Carolina: The Program. p.4.

1995. 1995 Annual report on taxa in the national collection for North Carolina Botanical Garden. Annual report to the Center for Plant Conservation. p.1.

Huber, F.C. 1975. An Ecological Atlas of Sagittaria fasciculata (Beal). Highlands, North Carolina: Progress report for Highlands Biological Station.

Newberry, G.; Hague, M.Q. 1987. Progress report on monitoring of Sagittaria sites, Greenville County, South Carolina. Columbia, SC.: South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department and South Carolina Nature Conservancy.

USFWS. 1983. Recovery plan for the bunched arrowhead (Sagittaria fasciculata). p.37.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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