CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Ptilimnium nodosum

Photographer:
Johnny Randall

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Ptilimnium nodosum


Family: 
Apiaceae  
Common Names: 
Harperella, Piedmont bishop-weed
Author: 
(Rose) Mathias
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
3675

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Ptilimnium nodosumenlarge
Photographer: Johnny Randall
jrandall[at]email.unc.edu
Image Owner: North Carolina Botanical Garden

Ptilimnium nodosumenlarge
Photographer: Johnny Randall
jrandall[at]email.unc.edu
Image Owner: North Carolina Botanical Garden


Ptilimnium nodosum is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Ptilimnium nodosum


Harperella grows along rocky shoals of clear swift-flowing streams, and requires a very narrow range of hydrologic conditions in order to survive. The water depth can't be too high nor too low and the water quality must be good. This has made the species highly vulnerable to any seemingly minor or major changes in their habitat either in the immediate vicinity of their location, or upstream from there. Because of this, half of the known populations of this species have been destroyed. The ten remaining populations are scattered across Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and West Virginia where stream quality is still relatively high, and development and pollution is relatively low. (Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission 2002)

This delicate wildflower grows up to three feet tall and is a member of the economically important family of plants (Apiaceae) that includes such food products as carrots, dill, and horseradish, as well as several plants with known medicinal value. The tiny white clusters of this rare species resemble those of its common relative, Queen Anne's Lace. However, where most members of its family have fern-like (highly dissected) leaves, the leaves of this species are nothing but short, hollow "quills". (Maryland Department of Natural Resources 2002)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Alabama
Arkansas
Georgia
Maryland
North Carolina
South Carolina
West Virginia
State Range of  Ptilimnium nodosum
Habitat
  A wetland-dependent plant, this species occurs in two specific habitat types:
1) shoals and margins of clear, swift-flowing streams
2) on the coastal plan along the edges of shallow, intermittently flooded ponds and wet meadows
(USFWS 1988)

Distribution
  Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and West Virginia (Maryland Department of Natural Resources 2002; Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission 2002).

Number Left
  Approximately 10 populations remained at the time of listing (USFWS 1988); six stream populations in Alabama, Maryland, West Virginia, and North Carolina, and four pond populations in South Carolina and Georgia. However, populations were found in five counties in Arkansas in 1990 (Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission 2002).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
1/1/1996
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
3/5/1991

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Alabama S1 7/29/1985  
  Georgia S1 E 7/13/1995  
  Maryland S1 E 12/18/1991  
  North Carolina S1 E 7/31/1989  
  South Carolina S1 6/12/1985  
  Tennessee Valley Authority S? 3/2/1989  
  West Virginia S1 9/4/1990  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Relies on natural flooding cycles to maintain open ground for favorable habitat.
Seeds disperse via water.

Threats
  Vulnerable to pollution of the riverine habitats where this species occurs
Susceptible to changes in stream hydrology, such as draining of its habitat or areas upstream for conversion to agricultural land, or drowning of it by stream impoundments

Current Research Summary
  Kress et al. studied the genetic variation of this species (1994).
North Carolina Botanical Garden has attempted to germinate seeds of this species, but have found them extremely difficult to germinate, possible because, like many other wetland plants, their seeds do not tolerate storage well.

Current Management Summary
  None known.

Research Management Needs
  Little is known about the habitat requirements of Ptilimnium nodosum, including the effects of fire and fire suppression. (USFWS 1991)

Ex Situ Needs
  Continue to work on propagation protocols.

References

Electronic Sources

(2002). Endangered Plants in Maryland. [Web site] Maryland Department of Natural Resources Wildlife and Heritage Service. http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/rtes.html. Accessed: 2002.

(2002). NC-ES Plant profiles. [Web pages] North Carolina Ecological Services--U.S. Fish & Wildlife Services--Southeast Region 4. http://nc-es.fws.gov/plant/plant.html. Accessed: 2002.

USFWS. (1990). Endangered and Threatened Species Accounts. [Web page] U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Endangered Species. http://ecos.fws.gov/servlet/TESSSpeciesQuery. Accessed: 2002.

WVDNR. (1998). Endangered Species Profiles. West Virginia Department of Natural Resources. http://www.dnr.state.wv.us/wvwildlife/endangered.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Bartgis, R.L. 1997. The Distribution of the Endangered Plant (Ptilimnium nodosum (Rose) Mathias (Apiaceae) in the Potomac River Drainage. Castanea. 62, 1: 55.

Kral, R. 1981. Notes on some "quill-leaved" umbellifers. Sida. 9, 2: 124-134.

Kress, W.J.; Massox, G.D.; Roesel, C.S. 1994. Genetic variation and protection properties in Ptilimnium nodosum (Apiaceae) an endangered plant of the Eastern United States. Conservation Biology. 8: 271-276.

Morse, L.E. 1988. Rare Plant Protection, Conservancy Style. On the Fringe; Journal of the Ohio Native Plant Society. 6, 4: 5-10.

Rees, M.D. 1988. Final listing rules approved for 25 species. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 13, 9-10: 3-5.

Rose, J.N. 1911. Two new species of Harperella. Contributions of the U.S. National Herbarium. 13: 289-290.

USFWS. 1988. Loss of Wetlands Threatens Four Plants. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 13, 3: 3-5.

USFWS. 1988. Regional News--Regions 2, 4 & 5. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 13, 6-7: 3, 6.

USFWS. 1988. Wetland Plants. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 13, 3: 4.

USFWS. 1989. Regional News--Region 2 & 5. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 14, 4: 1, 7.

Reports

1995. 1995 Annual report on taxa in the national collection for North Carolina Botanical Garden. Annual report to the Center for Plant Conservation. p.1.

2002. Rare Plant Fact Sheet. Little Rock, Arkansas: Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. p.2.

USFWS. 1991. Harperella (Ptilimnium nodosum) Recovery Plan. Newton Corner, Massachusetts: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.60.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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