CPC National Collection Plant Profile

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Prunus maritima var. gravesii


Family: 
Rosaceae  
Common Name: 
Grave's beach plum
Author: 
(Small) G.J. Anderson
Growth Habit: 
Shrub
CPC Number: 
3646

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Prunus maritima var. gravesii


Originally found by Small in 1897, this variety no longer exists in the wild. It differs from the common beach plum (P. maritima) in that it has round instead of elliptical leaves. It turns out that this plant is a mutant derivative that depends on P. gravesii for pollen. Some consider it morphologically distinct from Prunus maritima, worthy of recognization as a variety (var. gravesii) (Kartesz 1999). Others question its taxonomic significance (NatureServe 2001). However, it does not breed true despite being self-fertile. The only plants of this variety that still exist were grown from cuttings taken the original plant. (Anderson 1980) The New York Botanic Garden has successfully cultivated cuttings and the variety is currently grown as an ornamental plant. It produces white single or double flowers in May and edible fruit in late summer that is purple to crimson in color. Only one individual has ever been found in the wild and lived over 100 years after its initial discovery, eventually dying from natural causes at the turn of the century (NatureServe 2001).

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Connecticut
State Range of  Prunus maritima var. gravesii
Habitat
  A gravelly sand ridge overlooking Long Island Sound in Groton, CT.

Distribution
  Only known from a single individual (with 15 stems) at a small site in Groton, CT that was extant in 1998 but is now extinct. (NatureServe 2001)

Number Left
  Extinct in the wild. (NatureServe 2001)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G4TXCQ
 
10/30/2000
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
NA
 
1/19/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Connecticut S1 E 8/26/1983  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Unknown.

Threats
  No longer found in the wild.

Current Research Summary
  None known.

Current Management Summary
  None known.

Research Management Needs
 

Ex Situ Needs
  Continue to maintain the ex situ plants and evaluate whether or not they should truly be considered a variety of Prunus maritima.

References

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Endangered and Threatened Plants. [Web site] The New York Botanical Garden. http://www.nybg.org/gardens/ndanger.html. Accessed: 2002.

NatureServe. (2008). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. [Internet].Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed: (June 17, 2008).

Journal Articles

Anderson, G.J. 1980. New England note: change in status for Prunus gravesii. Rhodora. 82, 830: 375-376.

Gemma, J.N.; Koske, R.E. 1997. Arbuscular mycorrhizae in sand dune plants of the north Atlantic Coast of the US: Field and greenhouse inoculation and presence of mycorrhizae in planting stock. Journal of Environmental Management. 50, 3: 251-264.

Macfarlane, J.M. 1892. The beach plum, viewed from botanical and economic aspects. Contributions from the Botanical laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania. 2, 2: 216-230.

Meiners, S.J.; Stiles, E.W. 1997. Selective predation on the seeds of woody plants. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 124, 1: 67-70.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

Reports

1999. Rare Plant Fact Sheets. Augusta, Maine, USA: Maine Department of Conservation, Natural Areas Division.

Clark, R.A.; Uva, R.H.; Simser, D.H. 2000. The beach plum: a history and grower's guide. Barnstable, MA: Cape Cod Cooperative Extension. p.14.

Theses

Davis, Sherman Gilbert. 1942. Utilization and composition of the beach plum (Prunus maritima). [M.S. Thesis]: Massachusetts State College. 25p.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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