CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Penstemon haydenii

Photographer:
J. Stubbendieck

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Penstemon haydenii


Family: 
Scrophulariaceae  
Common Name: 
blowout penstemon
Author: 
S. Wats.
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
3241

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Penstemon haydeniienlarge
Photographer: J. Stubbendieck
Image Owner: Nebraska Statewide Arboretum

Penstemon haydeniienlarge
Photographer: J. Locklear
jlocklear1[at]unl.edu
Image Owner: Nebraska Statewide Arboretum


Penstemon haydenii is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Jim Locklear contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Penstemon haydenii


The sandhills region of Nebraska constitutes the largest dune field in the western hemisphere and one of the largest intact grasslands in North America. While most of the dunes are mantled with prairie vegetation, wind erosion opens up areas of bare sand called blowouts. The blowout penstemon inhabits such places, only to disappear as grasses and forbs reclaim the blowout. Once thought to occur exclusively in Nebraska, this endangered species was recently discovered over 180 miles away on sand dunes in central Wyoming.




Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Nebraska
State Range of  Penstemon haydenii
Habitat
  Limited to the sandhills region of west-central Nebraska, and sand dune habitat in the northeastern Great Divide Basin in Wyoming. In Nebraska this plant typically occurs in "blowouts" - sparsely vegetated depressions in active sand dunes created by wind erosion. In Wyoming it occurs on sandy aprons or the lower half of steep sandy slopes deposited at the base of granitic or sedimentary mountains or ridges. Elevation 2800-3800 ft. in Nebraska; 6680-7440 ft. in Wyoming.


Distribution
  West-central Nebraska in Box Butte, Cherry, Garden, Morrill and Thomas counties, and 185 miles (300 km) distant in central Wyoming in northwestern Carbon County.


Number Left
  Thirteen sites in Nebraska, with 3,000-5,000 individuals total (Stubbendieck et al. 1997).
Two populations in Wyoming, with 4,200-5,800 individuals total (Fertig 2001).


Protection

Global Rank:  
G1G2
 
2/29/2000
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/1/1987
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Nebraska S1 SEN 3/7/1989  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Blowout penstemon is an early succession species of open sandy habitat which disappears from revegetated sites. It was reported to be locally abundant in the Nebraska sandhills in the early 20th century, when there was considerably more open habitat (Pool 1914).
Pollinators in Nebraska are primarily megachilid bees, along with wasps, ants, beetles, butterflies and flies (Lawson et al. 1989).


Threats
  Threatened in Nebraska by habitat loss, natural succession, fire suppression, and erosion-reducing grazing practices that encourage the growth of grass cover. In Wyoming, threats include habitat loss from reclamation of sand dune areas, sand mining and off-road vehicle use (Fertig 2001).


Current Research Summary
  Dr. Jim Stubbendieck of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and his students have been conducting ecological studies involving the blowout penstemon since 1981.
Hand- and sulfuric acid scarification significantly enhances germination of blowout penstemon seed. Sulfuric acid pretreatment produces acceptable results and is much less time-consuming. Germinability of seed is not enhanced by light and alternating temperatures. Freshly harvested seed does not exhibit afterripening requirements (Flessner and Stubbendieck 1989).


Current Management Summary
  Dr. Jim Stubbendieck of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and his students have been conducting seedling transplant studies and reintroduction efforts in the Nebraska sandhills.


Research Management Needs
  Monitoring of populations.
Reintroduce new populations into historic range.


Monitoring Efforts
  Not Available


Ex Situ Needs
  Seed banking.


References

Books (Sections)

Tepedino, V.J. 2002. Section III. Environmental Monitoring. III.5 The Reproductive Biology of Rare Rangeland Plants and Their Vulnerability to Insecticides. Grasshoppers: Their biology, identification and management, User Handbook.

Conference Proceedings

Flessner, T.R.; Stubbendieck, J. Propagation of Blowout Penstemon (Penstemon haydenii S. Wats.). Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference; University of Nebraska, Lincoln. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, J., editors. 1988. p 237-239.

Hardy, J.P.; Weedon, R.; Bowlin, W.R. Blowout Penstemon: Description and Present Situation. Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference; University of Nebraska, Lincoln. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, J., editors. 1988. p 227-231.

Jobman, W.G. Determining Federally Listed Endangered and Threatened Species, Emphasizing Blowout Penstemon. Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference; University of Nebraska, Lincoln. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, J., editors. 1988. p 241-242.

Lawson, H.R.; Tepedino, V.J.; Griswold, T.L. Pollen Collectors and other Insect Visitors to Penstemon haydenii S. Wats. Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference; University of Nebraska, Lincoln. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, J., editors. 1988. p 233-235.

Stubbendieck, J.; Flessner, Theresa Ramona. Blowouts in the Nebraska Sandhills: The Habitat of Penstemon haydenii. Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference; University of Nebraska, Lincoln. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, J., editors. 1988. p 223-225.

Electronic Sources

Fertig, W. (2000). State Species Abstracts. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/wyndd/Plants/plant_species.htm. Accessed: 2002.

USGS. (2002). Status of Listed Species and Recovery Plan Development. [Web site] USGS: Norther Prairie Wildlife Research Center. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/others/recoprog/plant.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

1987. TNC's recovery efforts with Iliamna corei. The Nature Conservancy News. 37, 3: 14.

1999. Blowout penstemon (Penstemon haydenii). Castilleja: The Newsletter of the Wyoming Native Plant Society. 18, 2: Cover Page.

Caha, C.A.; Lee, D.J.; Stubbendieck, J. 1998. Genetics and Molecular Biology - Organellar genetic diversity in Penstemon haydenii (Scrophulariaceae): An endangered plant species. American journal of botany. 85, 12: 1704-1709.

Caha, C.A.; Lee, D.J.; Stubbendieck, J. 1998. Organellar genetic diversity in Penstemon haydenii (Scrophulariaceae): An endangered plant species. American Journal of Botany. 85, 12: 1704-1709.

Flessner, T.R.; Stubbendieck, J. 1989. Propagation of Blowout Penstemon (Penstemon haydenii S. Watson): Germination-enhancing Treatments. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. XVII: 65-70.

Flessner, T.R.; Stubbendieck, J. 1992. Pollination Characteristics of Blowout Penstemon (Penstemon haydenii S. Watson). Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. XIX: 63-66.

Pool, R.J. 1914. A study of the vegetation of the Sandhills of Nebraska. Minnesota Botanical Studies. 4: 188-312.

Stubbendieck, J.; Flessner, T.R.; Butterfield, C.H.; Steuter, A.A. 1993. Establishment and survival of the endangered blowout penstemon. Great Plains Research. 3: 3-19.

Stubbendieck, J.; Weedon, R.; Traeger, Jayne; Lindgren, D.T. 1982. Blowout Penstemon (Penstemon haydenii, S. Watson): Description, Status, and Culture of a Rare Species. Bulletin of the American Penstemon Society. 40: 4-9.

Sutherland, D.M. 1988. Historical Notes on Collections and Taxonomy of Penstemon haydenii S. Wats. (Blowout Penstemon), Nebraska's Only Endemic Plant Species. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. XVI: 191-194.

USFWS. 1986. 18 Plants Proposed for Listing Protection. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 11, 5: 1-13.

USFWS. 1986. Penstemon haydenii (Blowout Penstemon). Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 11, 5: 12-13.

USFWS. 1986. Proposal to Determine Penstemon haydeniii to be an Endangered Species. Federal Register. 51, 82: 15929-15932.

USFWS. 1987. Final rule to determine Penstemon haydenii (blowout Penstemon) to be an endangered species. Federal Register. 52, 169: 32926-32929.

USFWS. 1987. Protection is Approved for Eight Species. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 12, 10: 6-7.

Weedon, R.; Stubbendieck, J.; Beel, M. 1982. Notes on Nebraska Flora: Blowout Penstemon. NEBRASKAland Magazine. 60: 49-51.

Magazine Articles

Farrar, J. 1990. Field Guide to Wildflowers of Nebraska and the Great Plains. NEBRASKAland Magazine, Lincoln, NE: 215 pp.

Newspaper Articles

1983 January 23. A Useful and Spectacular Flower. Omaha World-Herald; Omaha, NE. Sunday. B. page 22.

1983 Tuesday, January 18. Rare Plant May Get Nebraska Refuge. Omaha World Herald; Omaha, NE. 1 page.

1986 Friday, June 20. Blowout bluebell is on endangered species list. Lincoln Journal Star; Lincoln, NE.

Looker, Dan. 1986. One-tenth of U.S. plants threatened: Scientists fight to save endangered plant. Lincoln Journal Star; Lincoln, NE.

Thomas, Fred. 1983 May 22. Blowout Bluebells Back at Sandoz Ranch. Omaha World-Herald; Omaha, NE. Sunday. 12-B. 1.

Thomas, Fred. 1986 June 19. Nebraska's Struggling Bluebell May Get Federal Protection. Omaha World Herald; Omaha, NE.

Wayman, Mary Kay. 1989 Friday, May 19. Behold the blowout penstemon, how it grows in a back yard. Lincoln Journal Star; Lincoln, NE. Front page & pg. 12.

Weible, Bruce. 1984 January 1. Nestled in Nebraska sandhills, Flower makes comeback. Sunday Independent; Sunday.

Reports

Fertig, W. 2000. Status of blowout penstemon (Penstemon haydenii) in Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming: Report prepared for the Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and Wyoming Game and Fish Department by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database.

Fertig, W. 2001. 2000 survey for Blowout penstemon (Penstemon haydenii) in Wyoming. Prepared for the Bureau of Land Management Wyoming State Office by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

Flessner, T.R.; Stubbendieck, J. 1989. Phase 2: Status, Ecology and Propagation of Blowout Penstemon (Penstemon haydenii S. Watson). Progress report prepared for the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. p.10.

Fritz, M. 1998. Research on the effects of grazing and mechanical disturbances on blowout penstemon (Penstemon haydenii S. Watson). Final report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, prepared by the Nebraska Natural Heritage Program, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. p.26.

Locklear, J. 1987. Plant Conservation Activities: 1987 Annual Report. Lincoln, NE: From the Nebraska Statewide Arboretum to the Center for Plant Conservation. p.3.

Stubbendieck, J.; Lamphere, Julia A.; Fitzgerald, J.B. 1997. Nebraska's Threatened and Endangered Species: Blowout penstemon. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Published by NEBRASKAland Magazine and the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, supported by contributions from the Nebraska Department of Agriculture. p.6 page brochure.

TNC. 1987. The Nature Conservancy Stewardship Abstracts. The Nature Conservancy. p.104.

USFWS. 1992. Blowout penstemon (Penstemon haydenii) Recovery Plan. Denver, Colorado: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.40.

Theses

Flessner, Theresa Ramona. 1988. Propagation, establishment, and ecological characteristics of Penstemon haydenii S. Watson. [M.S. Thesis]: University of Nebraska--Lincoln. 192p.

Lamphere, Julia A. 1999. Propagation and establishment of Penstemon haydenii S. Wats. [M.S. Thesis]: University of Nebraska--Lincoln. 212p.

Taylor, A.R. 2000. The vascular flora of the Upper North Platte River drainage, Wyoming. [Master's thesis]: University of Wyoming. Laramie, WY.


  This profile was updated on 6/9/2010
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