CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Oxypolis canbyi

Photographer:
Marj Boyer

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Oxypolis canbyi


Family: 
Apiaceae  
Common Names: 
Canby's cowbane, Canby's dropwort
Author: 
(Coult. & Rose) Fern.
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
3064

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Oxypolis canbyienlarge
Photographer: Marj Boyer
Image Owner: North Carolina Natural Heritage Program


Oxypolis canbyi is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Oxypolis canbyi


Canby’s dropwort is a perennial aromatic herb with quill-like leaves, slender stems and reproduces by strong, fleshy rhizomes. It is found in the Coastal Plain regions of Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia in pond cypress savannas, shallows of ponds, sloughs, and wet pine savannas. It is strongly clonal and most populations are maintained by asexual reproduction, although it does display compound clusters of small white flowers from August through September (Murdock and Raynor 1990). Canby’s dropwort was officially listed as endangered on February 25, 1986 due to its rarity and vulnerability to habitat modification. The main cause of decline is habitat alteration.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Delaware
Georgia
Maryland
North Carolina
South Carolina
State Range of  Oxypolis canbyi
Habitat
  Found on the lowland plain of the mid-Atlantic coast in swamps, shallow pineland ponds, and wet pine savanna. (USFWS 1986)

Some of the species associated with Canby’s dropwort include Ilex myrtifolia, Nyssa biflora, Taxodium ascendens, Pinus serotina, Stillingia aquatica, Rhynchospora tracyi, R. inundata, Manisuris rugosa, Rhexia aristosa, Polygala cymosa, Pluchea rosea, Lobelia boykinii and Hypericum denticulataum (NatureServe 2001).

Distribution
  Coastal Plain, from Delaware to Georgia (USFWS 1986)

Number Left
  53 total populations, with 1 in Maryland, one in North Carolina, 28 in South Carolina, and 23 in Georgia. (USFWS 1986)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
12/29/1992
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
4/10/1990

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Delaware SX 1/26/1988  
  Georgia S2 LT 7/13/1995  
  Maryland S1 E 12/18/1991  
  North Carolina S1 E  
  South Carolina S1 E 6/12/1985  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Canby’s dropwort has been found in many different coastal plain habitats, including pond cypress ponds, wet pine savannas, grass-sedge Carolina bays, shallow pineland ponds, and cypress-pine swamps. The largest and most vigorous populations are found on sites that are flooded for most of the year and have little if any canopy cover (Murdock and Raynor 1990).
• Soil types that support vigorous populations have medium to high organic content, high water table, are poorly drained and are acidic.
• Larvae of the black swallowtail butterfly (Papilio polyxenes) may be detrimental to the sexual reproduction of Canby’s dropwort since these caterpillars regularly chew through the stem just below the inflorescence (NatureServe 2001). Therefore, most reproduction in Canby’s dropwort is asexual.

Threats
  • Alteration of wetland habitat (drainage and development)
• Collection
• Predation from black swallowtail butterfly caterpillars (USFWS 1986)

Current Research Summary
  North Carolina Plant Conservation Program has permanent monitoring plots in the only North Carolina population

Current Management Summary
  Habitat protection where known populations occur. Active management procedures are at present unclear.

Research Management Needs
  • Population demography/monitoring
• Competition and other community-level interactions
• Pollination biology
• Underground biotic/abiotic dynamics
• Response to fire

Ex Situ Needs
  • Collection from all populations
• Reintroduction

References

Books (Single Authors)

Gleason, H.A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York, NY: Hafner Press. 1732p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Characterization of the Ashepoo-Combahee-Edisto (ACE) Basin, South Carolina--Species Gallery. Marine Resources Research Institute; South Carolina Department of Natural Resources; NOAA Coastal Services Center. http://www.csc.noaa.gov/acebasin/specgal/plants.htm. Accessed: 2002.

(2002). NC-ES Plant profiles. [Web pages] North Carolina Ecological Services--U.S. Fish & Wildlife Services--Southeast Region 4. http://nc-es.fws.gov/plant/plant.html. Accessed: 2002.

NatureServe. (2008). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. [Internet].Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed: (June 17, 2008).

USFWS. (1990). Endangered and Threatened Species Accounts. [Web page] U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Endangered Species. http://ecos.fws.gov/servlet/TESSSpeciesQuery. Accessed: 2002.

USGS. (2002). Status of Listed Species and Recovery Plan Development. [Web site] USGS: Norther Prairie Wildlife Research Center. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/others/recoprog/plant.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

1988. Center for Plant Conservation at North Carolina Botanical Garden. North Carolina Botanical Garden Newsletter. 16, 2: 2, 3.

1992. A rare kind of homecoming. The Nature Conservancy Maryland. 16, 4: 3.

Boone, D.D; Fenwick, G.H.; Hirst, F. 1984. The rediscovery of Oxypolis canbyi on the Delmarva Peninsula. Bartonia. 50, 21-22

Coulter, J.M.; Rose, J.N. 1900. Monograph of the North American Umbelliferae. Contributions to the U. S. National Herbarium. 7: 1-256.

Fernald, M.L. 1939. Oxypolis canbyi (Coult & Rose), Comb. Nov. Rhodora. 41, 484: 139.

Kral, R. 1981. Notes on some "quill-leaved" umbellifers. Sida. 9, 2: 124-134.

Tucker, A.O.; Dill, N.H.; Pizzolato, T.D. 1983. Nomenclature, distribution, chromosome numbers, and fruit morphology of Oxypolis canbyi and O. filiformis (Apiaceae). Systematic Botany. 8, Jl-S: 299-304.

USFWS. 1984. Regional Briefs--Region 5. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 9, 10: 5.

USFWS. 1986. Determination of Oxypolis canbyi (Canby's dropwort) to be an endangered species. Federal Register. 51, 37: 6690-6693.

USFWS. 1986. Final Endangered Listings Approved for Two Species. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 11, 3: 1, 12.

USFWS. 1986. Proposal to determine Oxypolis canbyi (Canby's dropwort) to be an endangered species. Federal Register. 50, 60: 12345-12348.

USFWS. 1988. Regional News--Regions 2, 4 & 5. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 13, 6-7: 3, 6.

USFWS. 1989. Regional News--Region 2 & 5. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 14, 4: 1, 7.

Reports

1995. 1995 Annual report on taxa in the national collection for North Carolina Botanical Garden. Annual report to the Center for Plant Conservation. p.1.

Aulbach-Smith, C. 1985. Element stewardship abstract for Oxypolis canbyi. Columbia, S.C.: The Nature Conservancy, South Carolina Office.

Boyer, M.W. 1988. Monitoring Oxypolis canbyi in a big cypress meadow in eastern North Carolina. Chapel Hill, NC: Unpublished report from the North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Kral, R. 1983. A report on some rare, threatened, of endangered forest-related vascular plants of the south. Atlanta, GA: USDA Forest Service, Southeast Region. Technical Publication R8-TP2.

Patrick, T.S.; Allison, J.R.; Krakow, G.A. 1995. Protected plants of Georgia: an information manual on plants designated by the State of Georgia as endangered, threatened, rare, or unusual. Social Circle, Georgia: Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division, Georgia Natural Heritage Program. p.218 pp + appendices.

Sutter, R.D.; Boyer, M. 1994. The seed bank of three rare species in southeastern pond cypress savannas: Rhexia aristosa, Lobelia boykinii, and Oxypolis canbyii. Chapel Hill, NC: Unpublished report. Southeast Regional Office of the Nature Conservancy.

TNC. 1987. The Nature Conservancy Stewardship Abstracts. The Nature Conservancy. p.104.

USFWS. 1990. Recovery plan for Canby's dropwort (Oxypolis canbyi). Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Region 4. p.25.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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