CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii

Photographer:
Dieter Wilken

Heading for profile page
CPC Home Join now
About CPC
CPC National Collection
Conservation Directory Resources
Invasive Plant Species Plant News
Plant Links Participating Institutions
Contribute
Search CPC
Search    Alphabetical List    Reference Finder    CPC Home


CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii


Family: 
Onagraceae  
Common Name: 
Antioch Dunes evening-primrose
Author: 
(Munz) W. Klein
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
2995

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


Profile Links
 ITIS
 Tropicos
 PLANTS
 Fish & WildLife

Oenothera deltoides ssp. howelliienlarge
Photographer: Dieter Wilken
dwilken[at]sbbg.org
Image Owner: Personal


Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii


In 1984 a humpback whale beached itself on the dunes in the Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge. Thousands of people came to see the animal, using the dunes to get the best view and, unfortunately, killing a number of endangered plant species growing there by trampling them to death. One of the species that fared the worst during this time was another National Collection species, Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum. Fortunately for the Antioch Dunes evening primrose, however, the human-caused disturbance actually allowed it to flourish.

This evening primrose is a much-branched perennial herb that produces showy, white flowers from March to September, and has grayish toothed or divided leaves. Because of its beauty, this primrose was chosen to be one of four endangered plants to be depicted in a set of stamps issued in 1979. (USFWS 1979c)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  California
State Range of  Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii
Habitat
  Loose sand and stabilized dunes (USFWS 1978c)

Distribution
  Contra Costa Co. California (USFWS 1978c)

Number Left
  Seven sites in the 70 acres along the San Joaquin River near Antioch, Contra Costa Co. Only three of these are naturally occurring populations--the other four are reintroduced populations. (Skinner 1997; NatureServe 2001)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G5T1
 
12/7/1998
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
4/25/1984

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  California S1.1 1  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Hawkmoths pollinate this species, and a study by Pavlik et al. (1993) recorded their visits in very low numbers affecting seed set of the plant.
The seed bank of this species was found to be lower than other species in the Antioch Dunes, which makes it potentially more susceptible to any threat. (Pavlik et al. 1993)
This species responds positively to fire (USFWS 1987).

Threats
  Industrial development
Sand mining
Agricultural conversion
Fire control activities
Off-road vehicles (ORV's)
Exotic invasives
(NatureServe 2001)

Current Research Summary
  Pavlik et al. studied the population biology of this species (Pavlik et al. 1988, 1993; Pavlik 1994)
A graduate student in Claremont Graduate School (Julie A. Greene) studied the reproductive ecology of this species (Greene 1995).

Current Management Summary
  Recovery work is in progress and two occurrences have been introduced in Sacramento and Contra Costa County. (CDFG 2002)

Research Management Needs
  The Antioch Dunes need to remain protected from activities that would degrade the habitat, and management activities should continue to enhance both endangered plant species that occur on the dunes (Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii and Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum).

Ex Situ Needs
  Maintain a genetically representative seed bank.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Skinner, M.W.; Pavlik, B.M. 1997. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California: Electronic Inventory Update of 1994, 5th edition. Sacramento: California Native Plant Society.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Pavlik, B.M. 1994. Demographic monitoring and the recovery of endangered plants. In: Bowles, M.L.; Whelan, C., editors. Recovery and Restoration of Endangered Species. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. p 322-350.

Electronic Sources

CalPhotos. (2002). CalPhotos: Berkely Digital Library Project. University of California, Berkeley. http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/photos/. Accessed: 2002.

CDFG. (2002). California's Plants and Animals, Threatened and Endangered Plants. List and Species Accounts. California Department of Fish and Game, Habitat Conservation Planning Branch. http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/t_e_spp/teplant/teplanta.shtml. Accessed: 2002.

USFWS. (2002). Some Threatened & Endangered Plants Found Mainly in California. Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. http://sacramento.fws.gov/es/plant_spp_accts/acctplant.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Pavlik, B.M.; Ferguson, N.; Nelson, M. 1993. Assessing Limitations On The Growth Of Endangered Plant-Populations 2. Seed Production And Seed Bank Dynamics Of Erysimum Capitatum ssp. angustatum and Oenothera deltoides ssp howellii. Biological Conservation. 65, 3: 267-278.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1978. Critical habitat set for two California plants. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 3, 9: 1, 9.

USFWS. 1978. Determination that 11 plant taxa are endangered species and 2 plant taxa are threatened species. Federal Register. 43, 81: 17910-17916.

USFWS. 1978. Furbish Lousewort Among 13 Plant Taxa Newly Listed by Service for Protection. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 3, 5: 1, 7-8.

USFWS. 1979. Regional Briefs--Region 1. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 4, 10: 2.

USFWS. 1979. Regional Briefs--Regions 1 and 2. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 4, 3: 2.

USFWS. 1979. Stamps commemorate endangered flora. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 9, 5: 1.

USFWS. 1980. Antioch Dunes acquired for butterfly and two plant species. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 10, 4: 1, 6-9.

USFWS. 1980. Regional Briefs--Region 1 & 4. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 5, 3: 2.

USFWS. 1987. Regional News--Region 1. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 12, 8: 2-3.

Reports

Greene, J.A. 1995. Three reproductive ecology studies in the narrow endemic Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii (Onagraceae). Claremont Graduate School. M.A. Thesis.

Pavlik, B.M.; Ferguson, N.; Manning, E.; Barbour, M.G. 1988. Demographic studies of endemic plants at the Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge. I. Seed production and germination. Report for the Endangered Plant Project California Department of Fish and Game.

Sanguamphai. 1989. 1988 Annual Report on the Status of California's State Listed Threatened and Endangered Plants and Animals. State of California, Department of Fish and Game.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
California
Oregon
Washington
Idaho
Nevada
Arizona
Utah
Montana
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Oklahoma
Texas
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
Arkansas
Louisiana
Wisconsin
Illinois
Michigan
Michigan
Indiana
Ohio
Kentucky
Tennessee
Mississippi
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
South Carolina
North Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
New Jersey
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Vermont
New Hampshire
Maine
New York
New York
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii