CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Oenothera californica ssp. eurekensis

Photographer:
Walter Wisura

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Oenothera californica ssp. eurekensis


Family: 
Onagraceae  
Common Names: 
Eureka Valley evening primrose, Eureka Valley evening-primrose
Author: 
(Munz & Roos) W. Klein
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
2993

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Oenothera californica ssp. eurekensisenlarge
Photographer: Walter Wisura
Image Owner: Rancho Santa Ana


Oenothera californica ssp. eurekensis is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Oenothera californica ssp. eurekensis


Oenothera californica is a perennial herb that produces white flowers from April to June. These flowers turn red as they age. The Eureka Dunes evening-primrose is found only in the southern portion of Eureka Valley Sand Dunes system in Indigo County, California.

Since the 1960's, the Dunes have become a popular area for recreational four-wheel driving. Despite the closure of the Dunes to recreational driving, illegal activity continues (USFWS 1977, 1983). The spinning of wheels through the sand cuts this and other plants' roots, disabling their water uptake capability. Destruction of vegetation and disturbance to sand further promotes water loss for this and other dune species (USFWS 1983).

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  California
State Range of  Oenothera californica ssp. eurekensis
Habitat
  Oenothera californica is restricted to the sandy dunes of the Eureka Valley in eastern Inyo County, California. Here, it is associated with other rare species, including another Center for Plant Conservation taxon, Eureka Valley dune grass (Swallenia alexandrae). (CDFG 2002)

Distribution
  It is endemic to the Eureka Dunes located in Eureka Valley in eastern Inyo County, California. Eureka Valley is northwest of Death Valley and is bordered by the Inyo Mountains to the north and west, the Sanne Range Mountains to south and the Last Chance Mountains to the east.

Number Left
  There are fewer than five occurrences found in the Eureka Dune system.

Protection

Global Rank:  
G4?T1
 
12/4/1998
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
12/13/1982

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  California S1.2 3  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Oenothera californica is associated with Eureka Valley dunegrass (Swallenia alexandrae) and Eureka locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus var. micans), both are regarded as endangered.

Threats
  Habitat destruction and four-wheel driving.

Current Research Summary
  Pavlik and Barbour's 1988 work on seed production, survivorship, seed bank and seed establishment showed that the endemic populations of Swallenia, Oenothera and Astragalus at the dunes are not declining. Although the plant populations appear to be stable, further study is warranted on the pollinator populations.

Current Management Summary
  The primary objective of the Eureka Valley Dunes Recovery Plan is to protect the existing dunegrass and associated species from human threats. There is no plan for transplantation or other methods of propagation to support existing populations (USFWS 1983). The plan does however, call for adequate monitoring of remaining populations.

Research Management Needs
  Population monitoring and general ecology of Oenothera californica would be helpful for conservation efforts.

Ex Situ Needs
 

References

Books (Single Authors)

Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1983. Where have all the wildflowers gone? A region-by-region guide to threatened or endangered U.S. wildflowers. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. 239p.

Skinner, M.W.; Pavlik, B.M. 1997. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California: Electronic Inventory Update of 1994, 5th edition. Sacramento: California Native Plant Society.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2000). CalFlora: on California plants for education, research and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: The CalFlora Database [a non-profit organization]. http://www.calflora.org/.. Accessed: 2002.

CDFG. (2002). California's Plants and Animals, Threatened and Endangered Plants. List and Species Accounts. California Department of Fish and Game, Habitat Conservation Planning Branch. http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/t_e_spp/teplant/teplanta.shtml. Accessed: 2002.

USFWS. (2001). Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge Planning Update 4, August 2001. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. http://pacific.fws.gov/planning/Antioch/antioch%20update%204p65.pdf. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Pavlik, B.M.; Barbour, M.G. 1988. Demographic monitoring of rare plants. Biological Conservation. 46: 243-246.

USFWS. 1978. Determination that 11 plant taxa are endangered species and 2 plant taxa are threatened species. Federal Register. 43, 81: 17910-17916.

USFWS. 1983. Eureka Valley Dunes Recovery Plan Approved. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 8, 3: 10-11.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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