CPC National Collection Plant Profile

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Marshallia grandiflora


Family: 
Asteraceae  
Common Names: 
giant Barbara's button, large-flowered Barbara's-buttons, large-flowered marshallia, Monongahela Barbara's-buttons
Author: 
Beadle & F.E. Boynt.
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
2805

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Marshallia grandiflora


Giant Barbara's button is found along scoured riverbanks and in bogs in the Mid-Atlantic region. It produces frilly pink or lavender tubular flowers with blue anthers in June and July. (PDCNR 2002) This rare species is found in only 11 watersheds in the Appalachians and the Cumberland Plateau, and in jeopardy throughout its natural range. It is listed as endangered in the states of Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Tennessee, and threatened in West Virginia. All historically known populations in North Carolina and Maryland are now extinct due to the destruction of the bog where populations were known to exist. (PDCNR 2002)

These plants require disturbance from periodic flooding to avoid crowding from shrubs and grasses. As a result, flood control and watershed alteration poses the largest threat to the survival of this species.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Kentucky
Maryland
North Carolina
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
West Virginia
State Range of  Marshallia grandiflora
Habitat
  Crevices of flood-scoured rock shelves and cobble/sand riverbanks and historically known to grow in bogs. (NatureServe 2001)

Distribution
  M. grandiflora is found in Kentucky, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and West Virginia. The largest populations are found in West Virginia. (NatureServe 2001)

Number Left
  There are 12 known populations along the Youghiogheny River in Pennsylvania and populations are also present in W. Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee.

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
7/30/2004
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
SC
 
1/19/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Kentucky S1 E 10/11/1990  
  Maryland SR X 12/18/1991  
  North Carolina SH C 1/23/1990  
  Pennsylvania S1 PE 5/8/1990  
  Tennessee S2 E 8/11/1986  
  Tennessee Valley Authority S?  
  West Virginia S2 5/5/1988  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Along the Gauley River in W.VA. it is found with species from the tall grass prairie. In Tennessee it is often found with Conradina verticillata. In the West Virginia/Pennsylvania region it is associated with several species including: Rhododendron arborescens, Platanus occidentalis, Salix spp., Tratbetteris caroliniensis, Liatris spicata, Houstonia caerulea, Lyonia ligustrina, Physocarpus opulifolius, Aster linariifolius, Sangusorba canadensis, Andropogon geradii, Zigadenus leimanthoides, Solidago spathulata spp. Randii var. racemosa, Oxypolis rigidior and Allium cemuum.

Threats
  Flood Control
Trampling
Collection
Any activity that could affect the Youghiogheny River system is a potential threat due to the large number of populations along this watershed.

Current Research Summary
  None known.

Current Management Summary
  The Western Pennsylvania Conservancy protected most of the populations in Pennsylvania in the 1950's. This land is now Ohiopyle State Park.

Research Management Needs
  Survey to determine if there are any surviving populations in North Carolina.
Verification of the plant's need for flooding.

Ex Situ Needs
 

References

Books (Single Authors)

Chester, E.W.; Wofford, B.E.; Kral, R.; DeSelm, H.R.; Evans, A.M. 1993. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants. Clarksville, Tennessee: Austin Peay State University.

Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. 1632p.

Gleason, H.A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York, NY: Hafner Press. 1732p.

Strausbaugh, P.D.; Core, E.L. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Grantsville, West Virginia: Seneca Books, Incorporated. 1079p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

PDCNR. (2002). Threatened and Endangered Species of Pennsylvania. [Web site] The Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/wrcf/plants.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Channell, R.B. 1957. A revisional study of the genus Marshallia (Compositae). Contributions Gray Herbarium Harvard University. 181: 41-132.

Smith, S.; Shine, C. 1998. 343. Marshallia grandiflora Compositae. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 15, 3: 158-163.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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