CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Lithophragma maximum

Photographer:
Mark Porter

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Lithophragma maximum


Family: 
Saxifragaceae  
Common Name: 
San Clemente Island woodland star
Author: 
Bacig.
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
2642

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Lithophragma maximumenlarge
Photographer: Mark Porter


Lithophragma maximum is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Lithophragma maximum


Lithophragma maximum is a perennial herb that grows on the moist- northern facing, canyon slopes of San Clemente Island. Plants consist of three lobed leaflets on slender stalks that produce pinkish-white flowers (Hickman 1993). It is threatened by feral goats and pigs and ranching activities that have promoted erosion (USFWS 1995). As part of its feral animal removal program, the U.S. Navy, has been removing the goats and pigs from the island (USFWS 1997).

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  California
State Range of  Lithophragma maximum
Habitat
  Lithophragma maximum is restricted to the moist northern-facing slopes in canyons in the eastern portion of San Clemente Island, currently under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Navy (USFWS 1995).

Distribution
  Lithophragma maximum is only found in two areas of San Clemente Island (USFWS 1995, 1997).

Number Left
  Less than 50 plants remain in the wild and are divided between two remote locations (USFWS 1997).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
11/1/2005
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
4/27/1998
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 
1/26/1984

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  California S1.1 1  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  There are no known ecological relationships.

Threats
  Extensive herbivory by feral goats, pigs and erosion (USFWS 1995).

Current Research Summary
  There is currently no active research.

Current Management Summary
  The U.S. Navy is removing feral goats and pigs as part of its Feral Animal Removal Plan (USFWS 1997).

Research Management Needs
  Research needs to include reproductive biology and ecology.

Ex Situ Needs
 

References

Books (Single Authors)

Skinner, M.W.; Pavlik, B.M. 1997. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California: Electronic Inventory Update of 1994, 5th edition. Sacramento: California Native Plant Society.

Smith, J.P.; Berg, K. 1988. California native plant society's inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. Sacramento: California Native Plant Society. 168p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Books (Edited Volumes)

James C. Hickman, Editor. 1993 The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1400p.

Electronic Sources

CDFG. (2002). California's Plants and Animals, Threatened and Endangered Plants. List and Species Accounts. California Department of Fish and Game, Habitat Conservation Planning Branch. http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/t_e_spp/teplant/teplanta.shtml. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Bacigalupi, R. 1963. A New Species of Lithophragma from San Clemente Island, California. Aliso. 5, 3: 349-350.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1995. Proposed rule to list three plants from the Channel Islands of southern California as endangered. Federal Register. 60, 142: 37987-37993.

USFWS. 1997. Determination of endangered status for three plants from the Channel Islands of southern California. Federal Register. 62, 153: 42692-42702.

Reports

Sanguamphai. 1989. 1988 Annual Report on the Status of California's State Listed Threatened and Endangered Plants and Animals. State of California, Department of Fish and Game.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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