CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Lilium parryi

Photographer:
Michael Wall

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Lilium parryi


Family: 
Liliaceae  
Common Names: 
lemon lily, Parry's lily
Author: 
S. Wats.
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
2549

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Lilium parryienlarge
Photographer: Michael Wall

Lilium parryienlarge
Photographer: Michael Wall


Lilium parryi is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Joyce Maschinski, Ph.D. contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Lilium parryi


The lemon lily is a bulbous herbaceous perennial that produces showy, fragrant yellow flowers during the months of July to August. These flower are large, with red spots in their corolla throats. In California, populations numbering in the thousands are found in high-elevation meadows and smaller populations occur in canyon with perennial water. Yet in Arizona, small populations, most numbering less than 100, are found along wet canyon bottoms near perennial water.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Arizona
California
State Range of  Lilium parryi
Habitat
  Occurs along streamsides in canyons and wet meadows at 1700m - 3000 m in elevation. Soil is high in organic material and remains saturated throughout most of the year. (Arizona Game and Fish Department 1999)

Distribution
  Known from San Gabriel and San Bernadino Mountains of southern California and southeast Arizona and Sonora Mexico.

Number Left
  7 populations, 6 of which are stable in Ramsey Canyon

Protection

Global Rank:  
G3
 
5/12/1999
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
SC
 
1/19/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Arizona S2 8/1/2002  
  California S? 5  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  • Boring insects damage flowering stalks of this species, frequently destroying both flowers and fruits in affected plants.
• Herbivory may also be detrimental to flowering plants.
• Pollination is by hawk moths (Hyles lineata and Sphinx perelegans) in California. Pollinators are unknown for Arizona plants (Newman 1992).

Threats
  Threats include:
• Small population size
• Flooding
• Collecting
• Mineral exploration
• Hiking impacts
• Illegal collection
(Arizona Fish and Game Department 1999)

Current Research Summary
  Plants found in Turkey Creek in the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona are genetically unique suggesting that they have been isolated for a long time. The majority of the other Arizona populations had little genetic variability (Friar et al. 1996).

Current Management Summary
  Part of one population occurs on Nature Conservancy land, and so is protected and managed for, and the plants there are candidates of source seeds for restoration work.

Research Management Needs
  Suggested research studies include pollination biology studies and assisted pollination and seed dispersal work
Suggested management projects include moving trails away from populations and obtaining water rights on land where the species occurs to ensure that hydrology is not altered.

Ex Situ Needs
  Be sure that seeds are collected and banked for all known populations, especially the genetically unique Turkey Creek population, to ensure proper genetic variation for future reintroduction work.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Craig, W.N. 1928. Lilies and their culture in North America. Chicago, IL: Florists' Publishing Co. 144p.

Kearney, T.H.; Peebles, R.H. 1973. Arizona flora. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085p.

Munz, P.A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley: Univ. California Press. 1086p.

Skinner, M.W.; Pavlik, B.M. 1997. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California: Electronic Inventory Update of 1994, 5th edition. Sacramento: California Native Plant Society.

Warren, P.L.; Anderson, L.S.; Shafroth, P.B. 1989. Population studies of sensitive plants of the Huachuca and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona. Tucson, Arizona: The Nature Conservancy. 98p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Conference Proceedings

Friar, E.; Falk, M.; Mount, D.W. Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers for Genetic Analysis of Lilium parryi, a Rare Arizona Plant. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; September 11-14; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, J.; Hammond, H.D.; Holter, L., editors. 1996. USDA and US Forest Service. p 86-91.

Electronic Sources

Arizona Game and Fish Department. (1999). Plant Abstracts. Compiled and edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. http://www.gf.state.az.us/frames/fishwild/hdms_site/Abstracts/Plants/abstracts%20-%20plants.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Davidson, A. 1923. Lilium parryi var. kessleri. Southern California Academy of Science. 23: 53-54.

Fonseca, J. 1992. Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference. The Plant Press. 16: 6-7.

Graaff, J. 1970. One aspect of amenity horticulture - new lilies for our gardens and greenhouses. Scientific Horticulture. 22: 38-44.

Grove, A. 1935. Lilium parryi. The Gardeners' Chronicle. 98: 443-444.

Linhart, Y.B.; Premoli, A.C. 1994. Genetic variation in central and disjunct populations of Lilium parryi. Canadian Journal of Botany. 72: 79-85.

Parry, C.C. 1878. A new California lily. Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. II: 188-189.

Reports

Babb, G. 1986. Special element plant abstract - Lilium parryi Watson. Tucson, AZ: Arizona Natural Heritage Program. p.5.

Dudek & Associates, Inc. 1999. Western Riverside County Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP) (Riverside County Integrated Plan (RCIP)) ôDraft Proposalö. Riverside, CA: County of Riverside Transportation and Land Management Agency. p.165. Draft Proposal.

Friar, E.; Nam, H.; Mount, D.W. 1993. Lilium parryi & Rumex orthoneurus genetic study. Tucson, Arizona: Report to U.S. Forest Service. Department of molecular and cellular biology, University of Arizona. p.18.

Gori, D.; Malasa, J.; Warren, P.L.; Monarqui, E.S. 1991. Population studies of sensitive plants of the Huachuca, Patogonia and Atascusa Mountains, Arizona. Tuscon, Arizona: The Arizona Nature Conservancy.

Newman, D. 1989. Arizona Native Plant Society field trip to Bear Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, AZ. Arizona Native Plant Society.

Newman, D. 1992. Element stewardship abstract for Lilium parryi (lemon lily). Arlington, Virginia: The Nature Conservancy.

Riggs, K. 1989. Lilium parryi management plan. Sierra Vista, AZ: Coronado National Forest. p.13.

Toolin, L.J. 1982. Status report on Lilium parryi Watson. Tucson, AZ: For the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, produced by the Arizona Natural Heritage Program. p.12.

Theses

Elam, Diane R. 1994. Genetic variation and reproductive output in plant populations: effects of population size and incompatibility (Lilium parryi, Lilium humboldtii, Raphanus sativus, Eriodictyon capitatum). [Ph. D. Thesis]: University of California. Riverside. 221p.

Skinner, M.W. 1988. Comparative pollination ecology and flood evolution in Pacific Coast Lilium. [Ph.D. Thesis]: Harvard University. Cambridge, MA.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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