CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Tetraneuris herbacea

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Tetraneuris herbacea


Family: 
Asteraceae  
Common Names: 
Eastern fournerved daisy, four-nerved starflower, Lakeside daisy, Manitoulin gold, stemless hymenoxys, stemless rubberweed
Author: 
Greene
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
2291

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Tetraneuris herbaceaenlarge
Photographer: Brian Parsons
bparsons[at]holdenarb.org


Tetraneuris herbacea is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Dawn M. Gerlica contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Tetraneuris herbacea


Tetraneuris herbacea is a stunning plant, both in its flower and its ability to survive. From late April to mid-May a carpet of sunny yellow flowers can be seen covering limestone pavement of the Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve, near the town of Lakeside, Ohio. The flowers all turn to follow the path of the sun across the sky. The 5-25 cm tall plants produce one or more, 5-30 cm tall, leafless stalks with a single flower. The flower is a composite with 10-30 double notched golden petals. The center disk is also yellow and 1-2 cm across. The blooms last for about a week and seeds disperse like dandelions, a month later. T. herbacea also reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes from its thick taproot. The lance-like leaves are all basal as well as thick and rubbery, which may be where one of the other common names, rubberweed, originated.

The plant was last known to occur naturally in Illinois in 1981 when the site owned by Commonwealth Edison Power Company was used for storage of several tons of coal. Three plants were removed before destruction of this site and have been the basis for all plant research from this population since. Even before the site was destroyed the population was effectively extinct. Studies from 1970-79 found no viable seed production because the 20-30 remaining plants were genetically too close to reproduce.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Illinois
Michigan
Ohio
State Range of  Tetraneuris herbacea
Habitat
  This plant is known to exist primarily in the alvars, limestone or dolomitic bedrock based grasslands with thin soils, of the Great Lakes region. Alvar communities are also rare and often threatened by quarrying and development which adds to the difficulties for this plant. It is also known from limestone prairies and sunny openings in cedar woodlands. These communities are naturally alkaline and often range from wet in the spring and fall to extremely dry in the summer. Areas where Tetraneuris herbacea appears are often sparsely inhabited by other native plants, which allow them exposure to full sun. (USFWS 1990)

Distribution
  T. herbacea is historically found in Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario. (USFWS 1990)

Number Left
  20 extant populations are known in Ontario on the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island (NatureServe 2001) including the following areas:
• Belanger Bay
• Cabot Head
• Dyer’s Bay Road/Brinkman’s Corners
• East side of Quarry Bay
• Misery Bay
• Taskerville
• West of Lynn Point
• Christina Bay/ Burnt Island Harbor
• George Lake

In 1994, fieldwork in Canada located at least 5 populations with at least 10,000 plants and several smaller populations within the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island.

Marblehead Quarry/Lakeside Plains, Ohio - Mackinac County, Michigan - Hiawatha National Forest - first collected in 1996 – unknown population size (Voss 1996)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G3
 
9/29/2005
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
9/19/1990

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Canada N?T2 5/22/1991  
  Illinois SX LE 8/8/1989  
  Michigan S1 LT 3/20/1999  
  Ohio S1 E 6/25/2000  
  Ontario S2 R 8/26/1988  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Noted potential pollinators: bumble bees (Bombus spp.), small carpenter bees (Ceratina spp. ), and halictid bees (Halictidae), but pollination may also be achieved by wind. (USFWS 1990)

Threats
  Threats, according to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at the time of listing (USFWS 1990), include:
Limestone quarrying
Fire suppression
Habitat destruction by recreational activities, foot traffic, construction, etc.
Herbivory
Plant collecting, although not a serious threat

Current Research Summary
  Marcella DeMauro studied the reproductive biology of the species. Using plants from the last population in Illinois and the Marblehead population in Ohio, she determined that pollination is self-incompatible, including closely related plants. (DeMauro 1992)

Current Management Summary
  ODNR purchased land and established the Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve. This 19 acre preserve still protects a large population while being surrounded by active quarrying and construction. (USFWS 1990)

DeMauro’s research crossed some plants from Illinois and Ohio which were used along with Ohio and Canada progeny to repopulate quality habitats in Illinois from the historic range of the species. Initial planting occurred in 1988 at three nature preserves: Lockport Prairie, and Romeoville Prairie in Will county and Manito Prairie in Tazewell county. (Recovery plan 1990)

In Ohio, in 1989, 200 plants were collected from different areas within Marblehead Quarry. These plants were used to start a population within one of two abandoned quarries owned by ODNR on Kelleys Island, Ohio. 40,000 seeds were collected from Marblehead and broadcast into the Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve in Ohio and two experimental plots at the other ODNR quarry. (Recovery plan 1990)

Research Management Needs
  Research:
No suggestions found
Management:
Exotic species control. Although most native species cannot survive long in the harsh climate where this species grows, exotic species are getting a foothold and competing. (USFWS 1990)
Herbivore control. Rabbits, deer and other predatory herbivores need to be managed. (USFWS 1990)
Seed ecology. Seed bank roles as well as seed viability, dispersal, and seed herbivory would be useful for understanding population maintenance. (USFWS 1990)

Ex Situ Needs
  No suggestions found

References

Books (Single Authors)

Fisher, R.T. 1988. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Part 3. Asteraceae. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 280p.

Gleason, H.A.; Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Bronx: The New York Botanical Garden.

Gray, A.; Fernald, M.L. 1987. Gray's manual of botany: a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Portland, Or.: Dioscorides Press. 1632p.

Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1986. Guide to the Vascular Flora of Illinois. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. 507p.

Voss, E.G. 1996. Michigan Flora Parts I, II, and III. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

Books (Sections)

DeMauro, M.M. 1994. Development an implementation of a recovery program for the federal threatened Lakeside daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra). In: Bowles, M.L.; Whelan, C., editors. Recovery and Restoration of Endangered Species. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. p 298-321.

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

ODNR. (2002). Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve. Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Ohio Division of Natural Areas and Preserves. Columbus, OH. http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/dnap/natural_areas/lakeside.html. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Ault, J.R. 2002. Micropropagation of the Rare Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra). HortScience. 37, 1: 200-201.

Cusick, A.W. 1991. Hymenoxys herbacea (Asteraceae): an endemic species of the Great Lakes region. Rhodora. 93: 238-241.

DeMauro, M.M. 1993. Relationship of breeding system to rarity in the lakeside daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra). Conservation Biology. 7, 3: 542-550.

USFWS. 1988. Determination of Threatened Status for Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra (Lakeside Daisy). Federal Register. 53, 121: 23742-23745.

Reports

McCance, R.M., Jr.; Burns, J.F. 1984. Ohio Endangered and Threatened Vascular Plants: Abstracts of State-listed Taxa. Columbus, Ohio: Department of Natural Resources.

USFWS. 1990. Recovery plan for the Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra). Twin Cities, Minnesota: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.80 + Appendices.


  This profile was updated on 9/28/2010
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