CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Helianthemum greenei

Photographer:
Dieter Wilken

Heading for profile page
CPC Home Join now
About CPC
CPC National Collection
Conservation Directory Resources
Invasive Plant Species Plant News
Plant Links Participating Institutions
Contribute
Search CPC
Search    Alphabetical List    Reference Finder    CPC Home


CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Helianthemum greenei


Family: 
Cistaceae  
Common Name: 
island rush-rose
Author: 
B.L. Robins.
Growth Habit: 
Subshrub, Shrub, Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
2190

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


Profile Links
 ITIS
 Tropicos
 PLANTS
 Fish & WildLife

Helianthemum greeneienlarge
Photographer: Dieter Wilken
dwilken[at]sbbg.org

Helianthemum greeneienlarge
Photographer: Dieter Wilken
dwilken[at]sbbg.org


Helianthemum greenei is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Dieter Wilken, Ph.D. contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Helianthemum greenei


Flowers have 5 bright yellow petals and are about 2 cm in diameter. One-year-old plants with 1-5 flowers may be only 10-15 cm tall. However, mature plants may reach 0.5 m in height, producing up to 100 flowers on multiple branches, and may live for up to 10 years. The minute, black, globose seeds, less than 0.5 mm in diameter, have exceedingly thick coats and show low rates of germination unless abraded and/or heated. Most occurrences are each composed of 1 to 7 widely scattered plants. However, a few large populations with high densities have been found in burned chaparral, with most plants persisting for about 4-5 years.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  California
State Range of  Helianthemum greenei
Habitat
  Open sites on rocky to gravelly soils of bluffs, slopes, and ridges, often in chaparral or mixed oak-pine woodland. Common associates include Pinus muricata and species of Arctostaphylos, Ceanothus, Eriogonum, and Quercus.

Distribution
  Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa islands.

Number Left
  At least 14 occurrences have been documented, including one each on Santa Catalina and Santa Rosa islands respectively. The remaining 12 are known from widely scattered localities on Santa Cruz Island. Most occurrences are composed of less than 10 plants each. However, one area on Santa Cruz Island, which was burned in 1994, supported several 1000 individuals for 4-5 years, followed by a decline to a few hundred individuals in 2000.

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
6/18/1997
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LT
 
7/31/1997
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
9/26/2000

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  California S2.2 5  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Island rush-rose is self-compatible and partly self-pollinating (McEachern et al., 1997). However, insect visitation by small bees and flies results in complete seed set in most flowers, which each produce 10-12 seeds.
Seed germination is enhanced by scarification and/or heat (Wilken pers. obs.).
Highest densities of plants were found in open sites among completely burned shrubs after a fire on Santa Cruz Island (Wilken pers. obs.).
Plants can be found on a diversity of substrates, ranging from fine-grained shales to rocky volcanic soils, and occasionally alluvial deposits in ephemeral stream channels.

Threats
  As listed in the recovery plan for thirteen plants from the northern channel islands (USFWS 2000):
Loss of small populations as a result of feral pig activities.
Competition from noxious weeds.
Erosion at sites near established roads.

Current Research Summary
  Demography is being studied on Santa Cruz island by the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. Populations on Santa Catalina and Santa Rosa islands are being monitored by the Catalina Island Conservancy and the National Park Service, respectively.
Seed biology is being studied by Carol Baskin at the University of Kentucky.

Current Management Summary
  The population on Santa Catalina Island is managed by the Catalina Island Conservancy and is protected from disturbance by feral goats and pigs. The population on Santa Rosa Island is managed by the National Park Service and is protected from grazing by feral deer and elk. Populations on Santa Cruz Island occur on lands owned and managed partly by The Nature Conservancy and partly by the National Park Service. The Nature Conservancy and the National Park Service are working collaboratively to develop a plan for weed control and removal of feral pigs, but no short-term measures have been taken to protect vulnerable populations.

Research Management Needs
  Genetic analyses within and among populations, including the natural seed bank.
Studies of ecological factors that influence establishment and survival, including competitive effects of native vegetation and potential mycorrhizal relationships.

Ex Situ Needs
  Seed collections representing the entire geographic distribution.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Skinner, M.W.; Pavlik, B.M. 1997. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California: Electronic Inventory Update of 1994, 5th edition. Sacramento: California Native Plant Society.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Books (Edited Volumes)

James C. Hickman, Editor. 1993 The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1400p.

Electronic Sources

(2002). New York Botanical Garden--The Virtual Herbarium. [Searchable Web site] New York Botanical Garden. Fordham Road Bronx, New York. http://scisun.nybg.org:8890/searchdb/owa/wwwspecimen.searchform. Accessed: 2002.

CatalinaConservancy. (2002). Island Ecology: Plants of Catalina Island. Catalina Island Conservancy. http://www.catalinaconservancy.org/ecology/plants/species1.asp. Accessed: 2002.

USFWS. (2002). Threatened & Endangered Plants Within Ventura Field and Wildlife Office Area of Responsibility. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office. http://ventura.fws.gov/plant.html. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Thorne, R.F. 1967. A flora of Santa Catalina Island, California. Aliso. 6, 3: 1-77.

Thorne, R.F. 1969. A supplement to the floras of Santa Catalina and San Clemente Islands, Los Angeles County, California. Aliso. 7, 1: 73-83.

USFWS. 1995. Proposed rule for 16 plant taxa from the northern Channel Islands, California. Federal Register. 60, 142: 37993-38010.

USFWS. 1997. Final rule for 13 plant taxa from the northern Channel Islands, California. Federal Register. 62, 147: 40954-40974.

USFWS. 1997. Notice of Reopening of Comment Period on Proposed Endangered Status for Sixteen Plants from the Northern Channel Islands of California. Federal Register. 62, 14: 3263.

Reports

McKeachern, K.; Wilken, D.; Chess, K. 1997. Inventory and monitoring of California islands candidate plant taxa. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division. p.46.

USFWS. 2000. Thirteen plant taxa from the northern Channel Islands Recovery Plan. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Region 1. p.93.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
California
Oregon
Washington
Idaho
Nevada
Arizona
Utah
Montana
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Oklahoma
Texas
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
Arkansas
Louisiana
Wisconsin
Illinois
Michigan
Michigan
Indiana
Ohio
Kentucky
Tennessee
Mississippi
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
South Carolina
North Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
New Jersey
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Vermont
New Hampshire
Maine
New York
New York
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii