CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Harperocallis flava

Photographer:
c. Billy B. Boothe

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Harperocallis flava


Family: 
Liliaceae  
Common Name: 
Harper's beauty
Author: 
McDaniel
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
2143

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Harperocallis flavaenlarge
Photographer: c. Billy B. Boothe


Harperocallis flava is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
S.K. Maddox contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Harperocallis flava


When not flowering, Harperocallis flava, or Harper's beauty, appears very grass like, and can easily be overlooked. The leaves of the rhizomatous, perennial herb are stiff and grassy, 5 to 21 cm tall. However, when this plant flowers, you know why its known as Harper's beauty. This plant's flower is typical of plants in the lily family with 6 petals, 6 stamens, and superior ovary. Each plant bears a single yellow flower, which distinguishes it from all other members of the family in the area, on a stalk much longer than the leaves. The petals are 9 to 15 mm long, spreading when the plant is in flower, erect when if fruit. The petals become green when the plant is in fruit. Harper's beauty flowers from mid-April through May and fruits are mature in July (USFWS 1991)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Florida
State Range of  Harperocallis flava
Habitat
  Harper's beauty occurs in wet prairies, seepage slopes, pitcherplant bogs, especially in transitions to shrub zones, and it is sometimes seen in nearby moist roadside ditches. It is found in a small area within the Apalachicola National Forest and vicinity (FNAI 2000). Harperocallis flava occurs in acidic boggy areas in full sun with soil high in sand and peat. It grows more abundantly in places where some degree of soil disturbance has prevented a grass mat from forming (NatureServe 2001).

Distribution
  Harper's beauty is endemic to Franklin and Liberty Counties in the Florida Panhandle. It occurs is a small area within the Apalachicola National Forest and vicinity where 15 small populations are known. The range has remained essentially the same as when the plant was first discovered in 1965 (FNAI 2000).

Number Left
  Harperocalis flava has been found at three locations, all within the Apalachicola National Forest, approximately 19 miles apart along SP-65 in Franklin and Liberty Counties, Florida. These locations are within 0.3 miles of each other in Franklin County, while a third site is about 19 miles north in Liberty County, although attempts to relocated this site have been unsuccessful. It is estimated that the plant population is several thousand plants (USFWS 1991).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
2/29/2000
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
9/13/1983

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Florida S1 LE 4/1/1998  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Jim Hanula, an entomologist at the U.S. Forest Service, has found that these plants are capable of self-pollination, but that halictid bees (or sweat bees) have been observed collecting pollen from flowers of this plant. (Hanula 2002)

Threats
  • A very limited range and small population number.
• Land management practices.
• Vandalism.
• Overcollecting.
(USFWS 1991)
• Fires suppression.
• Soil and hydrological disturbances.
• Mowing and herbicide use in road rights-of-way.
(FNAI 2000)

Current Research Summary
  • Godt et al. (1997) examined the genetic diversity in two populations of this endangered lily and found no discernable genetic variation between or among the populations.

Current Management Summary
  • U.S. Forest Services has a new draft management guide for this species, and currently manages the two Franklin County locations.
• Periodic controlled burns are performed to open habitat.
• Enforcement of regulations for protection of threatened, endangered, rare, or unique species.
(USFWS 1991)

Research Management Needs
  • Foster continued cooperation between the U.S. Forest Service and Florida DOT to maintain appropriate mowing schedule for roadside populations.
• Monitor known populations.
• Search for any additional populations.
• Restore the bog habitat that this species occurs in through prescribed burning.
• Prevent damage by off-road vehicles.

Ex Situ Needs
  • Continue to monitor potential genetic diversity within and among populations, and encourage the conservation of any that is found.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida State University Press. 605p.

Coile, N.C. 2000. Notes on Florida's Regulated Plant Index (Rule 5B-40), Botany Contribution 38. Gainesville, Florida: Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.

FNAI. 2000. Field Guide to the Rare Plants and Animals of Florida online. Florida Natural Areas Inventory.

Radford, A.E.; Ahles, H.E.; Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1183p.

Ward, D.B. 1979. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida Volume 5: Plants. Gainseville, FL: University Presses of Florida.

Wunderlin, R.P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. 806p.

Books (Sections)

Godfrey, R.K. 1976. Harper's beauty (Harperocallis flava McDaniel). In: Layne, J.N., editor. Inventory of rare and threatened biota of Florida. Florida Audubon Society and Florida Defenders of the Environment. p 89 - 90.

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. [Web site] University of South Florida Institute for Systematic Botany. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/isb/default.htm. Accessed: 2008.

Hanula, J. (2002). Harperocallis flava (McDaniel), or Harper's Beauty. U.S. Forest Service. http://www.srs.fs.fed.us/4505/hanula/pollinator_studies/HFinfo.htm. Accessed: 2002.

NatureServe. (2008). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. [Internet].Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed: (June 17, 2008).

USGS. (2002). Status of Listed Species and Recovery Plan Development. [Web site] USGS: Norther Prairie Wildlife Research Center. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/others/recoprog/plant.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Anderson, L.C.; Smith, G.L. 1994. Carpels and chromosomes of the endangered Harper’s beauty (Harperocallis flava). Association of SE Biologists Bulletin. 41: 103.

Godt, M.J.W.; Walker, J.H.; Hamrick, J.L. 1997. Genetic diversity in the endangered lily Harperocallis flava and a close relative, Tofieldia racemosa. Conservation Biology. 11, 2: 361-366.

Leonard, S.W.; Baker, W.W. 1983. Additional populations of Harperocallis flava McDaniel (Liliaceae). Castanea. 48, 2: 151-152.

McDaniel, S. 1968. Harperocallis, a new genus of the Liliaceae from Florida. Journal of the The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 49: 35-40.

Pitts-Singer, T.L.; Hanula, J.L.; Walker, J.L. 2002. Insect pollinators of three rare plants in a Florida longleaf pine forest. Florida Entomologist. 85, 2: 308-316.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Listing, Endangered. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1979. Final rule, Endangered. Federal Register. 44: 56862-56863.

USFWS. 1979. Service Lists 32 Plants. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 4, 11: 1, 5-8.

Reports

Kral, R. 1983. A report on some rare, threatened or endangered forest related vascular plants of the south. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Forest Service. p.718. USFS technical publication R8-TP2, . Vol. 1.

USFWS. 1983. Harper's Beauty Recovery Plan. Southeast Region: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.32.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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