CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Gouania hillebrandii

Photographer:
Steve Perlman

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Gouania hillebrandii


Family: 
Rhamnaceae  
Common Name: 
Hillebrand's gouania
Author: 
Oliver
Growth Habit: 
Shrub
CPC Number: 
2050

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Gouania hillebrandiienlarge
Photographer: Steve Perlman
Image Owner: National Tropical Botanical Garden

Gouania hillebrandiienlarge
Photographer: K. Wood
Image Owner: National Tropical Botanical Garden


Gouania hillebrandii is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Gouania hillebrandii


There are two endangered Gouania species endemic to Hawai’i (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS] 2001). G. hillebrandii, a member of the Buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae) is an erect to sprawling shrub that has pale to brown pilose stems with elliptic blades. The sweet fragrant flowers of G. hillebrandii are perfect (Wagner et al. 1999) and white, producing brown seeds (USFWS 1990). Flowering, fruiting, and vegetative growth occur mostly during the wet months of winter and early spring (USFWS 1996).

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Gouania hillebrandii
Habitat
  G. hillebrandii is restricted to dry forests between 244 to 518 meters (800 to 1,700 ft) elevation (USFWS 1990).

Distribution
  G. hillebrandii was formerly found on Moloka’i, Lana’i, Maui, and Kaho'olawe. Today it is restricted to small pasture areas on slopes in the Lahaina district, west Maui (Wagner et al. 1999).

Number Left
  Number of Populations: 3 (USFWS 2001)
Number of Plants: 1700-2100 (USFWS 2001)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
8/7/1990
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
11/9/1984
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
7/16/1990

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii S1 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  G. hillebrandii has an unknown breeding system and is thought to be insect-pollinated. The seeds of G. hillebrandii are presumed to be wind dispersed (Sakai et al. 1995).

Threats
  Threats to G. hillebrandii include browsing and grazing by feral and domestic livestock; removal of native vegetation and subsequent replacement by alien species; infestation by the exotic hibiscus snow scale (Pinnaspis strachani), and an unknown leaf-cutting insect (Wagner et al. 1999). Other threats include fire and soil erosion (USFWS 1996).

Current Research Summary
  The Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC), a federal-state-private partnership is working to prevent, contain, or eradicate the most serious plant and animal invasions that threaten G. hillebrandii (MISC 2001).

Current Management Summary
  The main management objective is to protect the natural population of G. hillebrandii from threats of browsing and trampling by cattle and other feral or domestic live stock, from insect infestation, competition from alien plants, and from fire. Feral and domestic livestock have probably been the greatest threat historically to the species’ habitat. Trampling also promoted erosion and compacted soils, while destroying vegetation and litter important to soil-water relations.
The National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) currently has ex situ holdings of 713 seeds in its seed bank, which represents two out of the three populations

Research Management Needs
  1. Undertake management in situ to ensure the continued existence of G. hillebrandii shrub including control of the hibiscus snow scale.
2. Terminating grazing leases on the land that G. hillebrandii exists.
3. Monitoring the population of G. hillebrandii.
4. Controlling insect predators, and preventing and controlling fires.
5. Conduct pollination biology studies on G. hillebrandii.
6. Map genetic diversity in the surviving populations of G. hillebrandii.
7. Test the influence of weeding and fencing on populations of G. hillebrandii.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin, M. Maunder, and USFWS (1996).

Ex Situ Needs
  1. Survey ex situ holdings and conduct molecular fingerprinting.
2. Establish secure ex situ stocks with full founder representation.
3. Develop proper horticultural protocols and pest management for G. hillebrandii.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin and M. Maunder.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Wagner, W.L.; Bruegmann, M.M.; Herbst, D.R; Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press Honolulu.

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i--Revised Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. 1853p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

NatureServe. (2008). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. [Internet].Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed: (June 17, 2008).

USFWS. (2001). Unpublished data. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii 96817. Accessed: 2001.

Journal Articles

Sakai, A.K.; Wagner, W.L.; Ferguson, D.M.; Herbst, D.R. 1995. Origins of Dioecy in the Hawaiian Flora. Ecology. 76, 8: 2517-2529.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1983. Three Plants. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 8, 10: 4.

USFWS. 1984. Final rule to list Gouania hillebrandii as an endangered species and to designate its critical habitat. Federal Register. 49, 219: 44753-44757.

Newspaper Articles

Whitten, Harry. 1985 January 14. The Rare Hawaiian Gardenia. Honolulu Star-Bulletin; Honolulu.

Reports

2002. Site Characterization for Kaho`olawe Island.

MISC. 2001. Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC), Pulling Together Initiative. 2002 Project Proposal. Submitted to the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. p.14.

USFWS. 1990. Recovery plan for Gouania hillebrandii (Rhamnaceae). Portland, Or.: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.36.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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