CPC National Collection Plant Profile

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Acanthomintha ilicifolia


Family: 
Lamiaceae  
Common Name: 
San Diego thornmint
Author: 
(Gray) Gray
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
19

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Acanthomintha ilicifolia is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Acanthomintha ilicifolia


A short aromatic annual, the San Diego thorn mint is primarily found on privately owned land in San Diego County. It produces clusters of white flowers with pink lobes from April to June. Unfortunately, over ninety percent of the available habitat for this species has been lost to development over the past century. Setting aside protected habitat is essential for saving this species.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  California
State Range of  Acanthomintha ilicifolia
Habitat
  A. ilicifolia is found in clay lens soil near vernal pools, in grasslands and in coastal sage scrub below 900 m. (USFWS 1998)

Distribution
  The only remaining populations are in the city and county of San Diego, including Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Navy land in that area. (CDFG 2002)

Number Left
  There are 150,000-170,000 individuals located in 32 populations, but only four of these are covered by the Multiple species Conservation Program (MSCP) in southern San Diego (USFWS 1998).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
2/5/2003
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LT
 
1/19/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  California S1.1 1  
  Mexico *FR83 8/26/1988  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Neighbors may include spring annuals, bulbous perennials, and a few herbaceous elements such as Sisyrinchium. The non-native Centaurea melitensis is common near A. ilicifolia.

Threats
  Development (has destroyed 90% of suitable habitat for this species)
Off-road vehicle use (including dirt bikes)
Trampling by cattle and horses
Invasion by exotic grasses and other non-native species
(USFWS 1998)

Current Research Summary
  San Diego thorn-mint (Acanthomintha ilicifolia) Mitigation Projects, San Diego, CA. Robert S. Taylor, Jr. collected baseline ecological and demographic data on this state endangered plant species as part of five year monitoring program. Monitored six natural populations and three artificially created populations. Analyzed density, vigor and reproductive parameters to assess population viability.
Dr. Ellen Bauder seems to be the one person doing research on the species. She is at San Diego State University. (Bauder 1994)

Current Management Summary
  This species is covered in the San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Plan.

Research Management Needs
  This species needs new or restored suitable habitat to return to healthy numbers.

Ex Situ Needs
 

References

Books (Single Authors)

Abrams, L.; Ferris, R.S. 1944. Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Beauchamp, R.M. 1986. A flora of San Diego County, California. California: Sweetwater River Press. 241p.

Munz, P.A.; Keck, D.D. 1959. A California flora. Berkeley, CA: Univ. California Press. 1681p.

Reiser, C.H. 1994. Rare Plants of San Diego County. Imperial Beach, CA: Aquafir Press.

Skinner, M.W.; Pavlik, B.M. 1997. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California: Electronic Inventory Update of 1994, 5th edition. Sacramento: California Native Plant Society.

Smith, J.P.; Berg, K. 1988. California native plant society's inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. Sacramento: California Native Plant Society. 168p.

Wiggins, I.L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford, California: Stanford Univ. Press. 1025p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Books (Edited Volumes)

James C. Hickman, Editor. 1993 The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1400p.

Electronic Sources

(2000). CalFlora: on California plants for education, research and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: The CalFlora Database [a non-profit organization]. http://www.calflora.org/.. Accessed: 2002.

CDFG. (2002). California's Plants and Animals, Threatened and Endangered Plants. List and Species Accounts. California Department of Fish and Game, Habitat Conservation Planning Branch. http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/t_e_spp/teplant/teplanta.shtml. Accessed: 2002.

DiTomaso, J. (2001). UC Weed Research and Center Yellow Starthistle Information. University of California, Davis. http://wric.ucdavis.edu/yst/impacts/impacts.pdf. Accessed: 2002.

NatureServe. (2008). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. [Internet].Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed: (June 17, 2008).

Journal Articles

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1995. Proposed endangered status for four plants from southwestern California and Baja California, Mexico. Federal Register. 60, 153: 40549-40557.

USFWS. 1998. Determination of endangered or threatened status for four plants from southwestern California and Baja California, Mexico. Federal Register. 63, 197: 54938-54956.

USFWS. 2000. Receipt of an Incidental Take Permit Application and Availability of an Environmental Assessment Associated With the Habitat Management Plan for Natural Communities in the City of Carlsbad, California. Federal Register. 65, 125: 39919-39920.

Reports

2000. Protecting Endangered Species: Interim Measures for Use of Fungicides in San Diego County. Sacramento, CA: United States Environmental Protection Agency: DPR Pesticide Registration Branch. p.37.

2001. Public Review Draft: Multiple Habitat Conservation Program (MHCP). Executive Summary. Prepared for Sandiego Association of Governments & MHCP Advisory Committee by the Conservation Biology Institute & Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Company. p.25.

Bauder, E. 1994. Surveys and assessment of known Acanthomintha ilicifolia populations. California Department of Fish and Game. p.26 + appendices.

KEA Environmental, Inc. 2001. Biological Resources Technical Report for the Valley Rainbow Interconnect. San Diego, CA: San Diego Gas & Electric Company.

Sanguamphai. 1989. 1988 Annual Report on the Status of California's State Listed Threatened and Endangered Plants and Animals. State of California, Department of Fish and Game.

Stephenson, John R.; Calcarone, Gena M. 1999. Southern California Mountains and Foothills Assessment: Habitat and Species Conservation Issues. Chapter 5 - Potentially Vulnerable Species: Plants. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. p.402. General Technical report PSW-GTR-172.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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