CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Erythronium propullans

Photographer:
Welby Smith

Heading for profile page
CPC Home Join now
About CPC
CPC National Collection
Conservation Directory Resources
Invasive Plant Species Plant News
Plant Links Participating Institutions
Contribute
Search CPC
Search    Alphabetical List    Reference Finder    CPC Home


CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Erythronium propullans


Family: 
Liliaceae  
Common Names: 
dwarf trout lily, dwarfadder's tongue, fawn lily, Minnesota adder's tongue, Minnesota fawn lily, Minnesota trout-lily
Author: 
Gray
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
1838

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


Profile Links
 ITIS
 Tropicos
 PLANTS
 Fish & WildLife

Erythronium propullansenlarge
Photographer: Welby Smith
Image Owner: MN DNR

Erythronium propullansenlarge
Image Owner: MN DNR


Erythronium propullans is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Dawn M. Gerlica and Lindsey Parsons contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Erythronium propullans


This plant is a spring ephemeral, showing itself in only fourteen populations in the woods of Minnesota during the months of April and May and disappearing from sight by early June. This plant is a mystery, as it is very rarely found producing seeds. It grows from a bulb with an underground vegetative runner, and only 1/10th of the population reproduces each year. (USFWS 1986a)

This lily has the tapering, lightly mottled green/gray leaves typical of trout lilies. The longer leaf can be 1-2cm broad, with a general range of 1-3cm. These leaves are found in pairs when in bloom and single when not. The flowers of this species, when produced, are very small. They have four to six white petals and are about 8-14mm in diameter (less than dime sized when open). Petal colors can range from pink, to pale violet, to an almost flesh tone, to white, to gray white, with 4 to 6 petals. A traditional set of 6 petals is unusual. Only 12% of the population has this. Stamen are heteromorphic, and usually of unequal length. The fruit, when produced, is 4.5-9mm long. Unlike other species of trout lily in the same region, the fruit of this species remains nodding instead of becoming erect. This plant appears to reproduce most often from vegetative offshoots, which appear at a distance from the plant, not right next to it.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Minnesota
State Range of  Erythronium propullans
Habitat
  Found on wooded north to northwest/northeast-facing slopes and floodplains along two rivers in two counties in Minnesota. This species is found in a zone 15 to 27 meters from stream beads. The Minnesota trout lily prefers rich, black, well drained soil with high water capacity that are neutral to slightly acidic. (USFWS 1986a)

Found growing with other spring ephemerals, including Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra cucullaria), white trout-lily (Erythronium albidum), and snow trillium (Trillium nivale). (USFWS 1986a)

Distribution
  Found along the Cannon and Zumbro Rivers in Rice and Goodhue counties in Minnesota. (USFWS 1986a)

Number Left
  At the time of listing, 14 sites of 1 to 3 acres each were known. (USFWS 1986a)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
1/1/1996
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
12/16/1987

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Minnesota S1 E 7/1/1996  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Unknown.

Threats
  Successional changes in habitat threaten this shade intolerant herb. Other threats include:
Urban development
Agricultural activities and development
Horticultural collecting
Reproductive Sterility
Trampling due to human foot traffic
Motorbikes
Traditional uprooting by water to find new habitat downstream, because there is no suitable habitat downstream
Large changes in water regimes, such as:
Inundation by reservoirs
Stream diversion
Flooding
Dike building
Channelization

Current Research Summary
  Thomas Morley has investigated apparent hybrids between Erythronium albidum and E. propullans. (Morley 1993)

Current Management Summary
  Two sites are owned by The Nature Conservancy, both of which are being managed for the specie's benefit. (USFWS 1985b)
A boardwalk was constructed at one State Park where this species is found to allow visitors to observe the rare lily without disturbing it. (Sather 1990)

Research Management Needs
 

Ex Situ Needs
 

References

Books (Single Authors)

Coffin, B.; Pfannmuller, L. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press. 473p.

Gleason, H.A.; Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Bronx: The New York Botanical Garden.

Gray, A.; Fernald, M.L. 1987. Gray's manual of botany: a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Portland, Or.: Dioscorides Press. 1632p.

Ownbey, G.B.; Morley, T. 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: a checklist and atlas. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 307p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Weller, S.G. 1994. The relationship of rarity to plant reproductive biology. In: Bowles, M.L.; Whelan, C., editors. Recovery and Restoration of Endangered Species. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. p 90-117.

Journal Articles

Banks, J.A. 1980. The reproductive biology of Erythronium propullans and sympatric populations of Erythronium albidum liliaceae. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 107, 2: 181-188.

Gray, A. 1871. A new species of Erythronium. The American Journal of Pharmacy. VI

Morley, T. 1982. Flowering frequencies and vegetative reproduction in Erythronium albidum and E. propullans, and related observations. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 109, 2: 169-176.

Morley, T. 1988. Observations on colonies and on seedling growth of apparent hybrids between Erythronium-albidum and Erythronium-propullans. Phytologia. 65, 2: 97-102.

Mueller, L. 1995. The Lilies of Schluters' Woods. Endangered Species Bulletin. 20, 3: 15.

Pleasants, J.M.; Wendel, J.F. 1989. Genetic Diversity In A Clonal Narrow Endemic, Erythronium Propullans, And In Its Widespread Progenitor, Erythronium Albidum. American Journal of Botany. 76, 8: 1136-1151.

USFWS. 1985. Proposal to Determine Erythronium propullans (Minnesota Trout Lily) To be an Endangered Species. Federal Register. 50, 86: 18893-18895.

USFWS. 1985. Two Plants Proposed for Listing as Endangered. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 10, 5: 3-4.

USFWS. 1986. Determination of endangered status for Erythronium propullans (Minnesota trout lily). Federal Register. 51, 58: 10521-10523.

USFWS. 1986. Protection Given to Seven Species. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 11, 4: 1, 4-6.

USFWS. 1986. Regional Briefs. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 11, 4: 10.

Reports

Morley, T. 1993. Apparent hybrids between Erythronium albidum and E. propullans grown from wild seed-Final Report. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Minnesota Plant Press 13(1). p.2.

Sather, N. 1990. Minnesota dwarf trout lily: an endangered Minnesota wildflower. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Natural Heritage Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. p.9. Report number 18.

TNC. 1987. The Nature Conservancy Stewardship Abstracts. The Nature Conservancy. p.104.

USFWS. 1987. Minnesota Trout Lily (Erythronium propullans Gray) recovery plan. Twin Cities, MN: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.31. [14578].


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
California
Oregon
Washington
Idaho
Nevada
Arizona
Utah
Montana
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Oklahoma
Texas
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
Arkansas
Louisiana
Wisconsin
Illinois
Michigan
Michigan
Indiana
Ohio
Kentucky
Tennessee
Mississippi
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
South Carolina
North Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
New Jersey
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Vermont
New Hampshire
Maine
New York
New York
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii