CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Lesquerella filiformis

Photographer:
Casey Galvin

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Lesquerella filiformis


Family: 
Brassicaceae  
Common Names: 
Bladderpod, limestone glade, limestone glade bladderpod, Missouri bladderpod
Author: 
Rollins
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
15859

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Lesquerella filiformisenlarge
Photographer: Casey Galvin


Lesquerella filiformis is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Kimberlie McCue, Ph.D. contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Lesquerella filiformis


Lesquerella filliformis is a winter annual. This means that it flowers and produces fruit in the early summer. Once hot weather arrives, plants disperse their seeds and die. These seeds lie dormant through the heat of the summer and germinate in the fall. They overwinter as a basal rosette, and then flower and fruit the following spring, beginning the cycle all over again.
In 1998, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service considered proposing this species for possible downlisting from Federally Endangered to Federally Threatened. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, known sites of the species increased from 11 to 61 since the species was listed. This is in part due to increased surveying for the plant, but also due to increased habitat management that has restored the bladderpod in some areas.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Arkansas
Missouri
State Range of  Lesquerella filiformis
Habitat
  L. filiformis is restricted to limestone glades, sparsely vegetated grasslands with shallow soils and exposed bedrock. Low levels of disturbance help control the invasion of woody species. (USFWS 1988)

Commonly found with Arenaria petula, Camassia scilloides, Northoscordum bivalve, Opuntia humifusa, Satureja arkansana, Tradescantia tharpii, and Verbena canadensis. Bromus tectorum is a species of cheat grass which is invading the habitat of the Missouri Bladderpod. (USFWS 1988)

Distribution
  Found in 4 southwestern MO counties and one county in northern Arkansas. Protected sites occur at Wilson's Creek Battlefield, Rocky Barrens Conservation Area, Greenfield Glade, and Bois d'Arc Conservation Area. (USFWS 1988)

Number Left
  Approximately 61 populations, primarily in southwest Missouri. The number of individuals can vary dramatically from year to year. As an example, one site at Wilson's Creek Battlefield has been monitored for ten years. The number of individuals observed has ranged from zero to over three hundred thousand from year to year. (USFWS 1988)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G3
 
6/10/2003
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LT
 
10/15/2003
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
4/7/1988

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Arkansas S1 7/1/1997  
  Missouri S3 E 5/1/2000  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  This species has chasmogamous flowers which are pollinated by insects, primarily small bees that are in the family Halicitdae. However, there have been occasional reports of cleistogamous flower production (flowers that are closed to pollinators).
It is thought that seed dispersal occurs through wind and rainwater runoff.
Lesquerella filiformis often occurs in patches of sparse vegetation where disturbances from frost heaving and/or insect and rodent activity open up small pocket of bare soil.
(USFWS 1988)

Threats
  Trampling
Invasion of woody species and/or exotic species
Grazing
Off-road vehicles
Highway maintenance activities along rights-of-way, including mowing and herbiciding
Urban development
Limestone quarrying
(USFWS 1988)

Current Research Summary
  Effects of trampling on survival and reproduction (Thomas & Wilson 1992)
Population ecology, including seed dormancy and seed bank studies, plant survivorship, and reproductive success studies (Thomas 1996)

Current Management Summary
  Development and Implementation of a Protocol for Long-Term Monitoring of Bladder-Pod (Lesquerella Filiformis) at Wilson's Creek National Battlefield (M. Kelrick at Truman State University)
The Missouri Department of Conservation has developed a list of "Best Management Practices" for landowners and managers (e.g. avoid non-specific herbicide use in areas of Missouri bladderpod between October and July).
Habitat restoration such as cedar clearing and burning has been done in some areas and has resulted in successful re-establishment of the Bladderpod (one such area is Rocky Barrens near Springfield, MO)

Research Management Needs
  Determine precise microhabitat needs
Determine how natural disturbances (such as fire) contribute to the long-term persistence of the species
Better understanding of population biology
Maintain habitat heterogeneity (Thomas 1996) to ensure long-term persistence of the species in an unpredictable environment

Ex Situ Needs
 

References

Books (Single Authors)

2000. Missouri Plants of Conservation Concern. Jefferson City, MO: Conservation Commission of Missouri--Missouri Department of Conservation.

Rollins, R.C. 1993. The Cruciferae of continental North America: Systematics of the mustard family from the Arctic to Panama. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 976p.

Rollins, R.C.; Shaw, E.A. 1973. The genus Lesquerella (Cruciferae) in North America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 288p.

Steyermark, J.A. 1977. Flora of Missouri. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 1728p.

Books (Sections)

Pavlovic, N.B. 1994. Disturbance-dependent persistence of rare plants: anthropogenic impacts and restoration implications. In: Bowles, M.L.; Whelan, C., editors. Recovery and Restoration of Endangered Species. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. p 159-193.

Electronic Sources

(2002). New York Botanical Garden--The Virtual Herbarium. [Searchable Web site] New York Botanical Garden. Fordham Road Bronx, New York. http://scisun.nybg.org:8890/searchdb/owa/wwwspecimen.searchform. Accessed: 2002.

ESIS. (1998). Endangered Species System (ESIS): Fish and Wildlife Exchange. [Web site;] Virginia Tech. http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

La Pierre, Y. 1998. Missouri bladderpod. National Parks. 72, 3-4: 48.

Mitchell, K. 2002. We're glad to have glades. Endangered Species Bulletin. 27, 3: 28.

Morgan, S.W. 1983. Lesquerella filiformis: an endemic mustard. Natural Areas Journal. 3, 4: 59-62.

Thomas, L.P. 1996. Population Ecology of a winter annual (Lesquerella filiformis) in a patchy environment. Natural Areas Journal. 16, 3: 216-226.

Thomas, L.P.; Wilson, G.D. 1992. Effects of Experimental Trampling on the Federally Endangered Species Lesquerella filiformis (Rollins) at Wilson's Creek National Battlefield, Missouri. Natural Areas Journal. 12, 2: 101.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1986. 18 Plants Proposed for Listing Protection. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 11, 5: 1-13.

USFWS. 1987. Determination of endangered status for Lesquerella filiformis (Missouri bladder-pod). Federal Register. 52, 5: 679-682.

Magazine Articles

Rogers, G. 1988. Native Plants. Missouri Native Plant Society: 5. 1. 1-2.

Reports

Hickey, E.E. 1988. A four county survey for acceptable habitat and occurrence of Lesquerella filiformis Rollins. Missouri Department of Conservation. p.101.

Thurman, C.M.; Hickey, E.E. 1989. A Missouri survey of six species of federal concern: Auriculate False Foxglove, Tomanthera auriculata; Mead's Milkweed, Asclepias meadii; Geocarpon, Geocarpon minimum; Missouri Bladder-pod, Lesquerella filiformis; Western Prairie Fringed Orchid, Platanthera praeclara; and Decurrent False Aster, Boltonia decurrens. Missouri Dept. of Conservation.

USFWS. 1988. Recovery Plan for Missouri Bladderpod (Lesquerella filiformis). Twin Cities, Minnesota: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Wieland, Greg. 1995. Lesquerella pallida Germination Studies. Houston, TX: Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens. p.3. Draft.

Theses

Graham, Marcy. 1994. Genetic Population Structure of a Glade Endemic, the Missouri Bladderpod (Lesquerella filiformis; Brassicaceae). [M.S. Thesis]: Northeast Missouri State University. 67p.

Harms, Robert C. 1992. Investigation into the Life History of an Endangered Winter Annual, Lesquerella filiformis. [M.S. Thesis]: Northeast Missouri State University. 118p.

Westrich, Jennifer Lynn. 1997. Genetic Population Substructure of the Rare Lesquerella filiformis: Consequences of the factors which affect gene flow within a site. [M.S. Thesis]: Truman State University. 48p.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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