CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus

Photographer:
Joyce Maschinski

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus


Family: 
Polemoniaceae  
Common Name: 
Holy ghost ipomopsis
Author: 
Wilken & Fletcher
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
13365

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Ipomopsis sancti-spiritusenlarge
Photographer: Joyce Maschinski
jmaschinski[at]fairchildgarden.org


Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Joyce Maschinski, Ph.D. contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus


Holy Ghost ipomopsis is known from a single 2-mile stretch of canyon east of Santa Fe, New Mexico. The population of approximately 2000 individuals has experienced decline in the past 6 years. Population viability models indicate that the species is headed toward extinction within the next 50 years. What is making matters worse is that reproduction in the species is very poor. Less than 10% of flowers produce viable fruits, and fruits produce only 3 seeds each.

The Arboretum at Flagstaff is monitoring the wild population each year and is making recommendations to land managers. In addition, they are investigating the poor reproduction of the species in an attempt to overcome inherent limitations.

This species is a member of the Phlox family, and produces pink, tubular flowers from July to September.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  New Mexico
State Range of  Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus
Habitat
  This species grows on relatively dry, steep, west to southwest-facing slopes in open ponderosa pine or mixed conifer/aspen forest at 2,400-2,500 m (7,730-8,220 ft). It is found on the geologic substrate of partly weathered Terrero limestone. (New Mexico Rare Plant Technical Council 1999)

Distribution
  Holy Ghost ipomopsis is only known from a single canyon in the upper Pecos River drainage of the southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico, San Miguel County. (New Mexico Rare Plant Technical Council 1999)

Number Left
  An estimated 1,200-2,500 plants grow in the Santa Fe National Forest (USFWS 1992)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
1/1/1996
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  New Mexico  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  The Holy Ghost ipomopsis is believed to be a recently derived species and there is a strong possibility that it is suffering from the problems of small populations. Its extremely poor reproduction is an indication that it has inbreeding depression, a genetic condition that may lead to malformations that hinder future reproductive success.
It is believed that fire historically played a role in maintaining the open habitat that this species requires. (USFWS 1992)
Biological control of an invasive species, the spruce budworm moth, that involves the widespread aerial broadcast of a bacterium may also kills innumerable other insects in the area, including potential pollinators for the Holy Ghost ipomopsis. (USFWS 1992)

Threats
  Threats include:
Fire suppression
Pesticides
Road construction (11 plants lost in 1989 to road straightening/paving activity)
Inbreeding depression
(USFWS 1992)

Current Research Summary
  Wild populations are monitored yearly (Maschinski 2001). Population viability models indicate that the species is at very high risk of extinction within the next 50 years.
Maschinski is also examining flower morphology of Holy Ghost ipomopsis to determine if there are anomalies that may be causing low reproductive success.
Robert Sivinski of New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department has done common garden experiments and reintroductions.

Current Management Summary
  Holy Ghost ipomopsis is a federally listed endangered species and is managed by the Santa Fe National Forest.

Research Management Needs
  The severe reproduction problems of Holy Ghost ipomopsis are the most critical research need. Its overall seed production is so low in the wild and in controlled cultivation in gardens that little material is available for reintroduction efforts.

Ex Situ Needs
  Propagation of large numbers of propagules for reintroduction efforts is needed.

References

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Conference Proceedings

Maschinski, J. Extinction Risk of Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus in Holy Ghost Canyon With and Without Management Intervention. Southwestern rare and endangered plants: proceedings of the third conference; September 25-28; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, Joyce; Holter, Louella, editors. 2000. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fort Collins, CO (Proceedings RMRS-P-23). p 206-212.

Maschinski, J. Seed Germination and Pollination Requirements of Holy Ghost Ipomopsis (Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus). Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; September 11-14; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, J.; Hammond, H.D.; Holter, L., editors. 1996. USDA and US Forest Service. p 167-170.

Sivinski, R.; Knight, P. Narrow Endemism in the New Mexico Flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; September 11-14; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, J.; Hammond, H.D.; Holter, L., editors. 1996. USDA and US Forest Service. p 286-296.

Electronic Sources

(1999). New Mexico Rare Plants Information. New Mexico Rare Plant Technical Council: Albuquerque, NM. Version 15. http://nmrareplants.unm.edu/nmrptc/rarelist.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

USFWS. 1992. Listing Proposals. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 17, 9-11: 8.

USFWS. 1994. Determination of endangered status for the plant Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus (holy ghost ipomopsis). Federal Register. 59, 56: 13836-13841.

Wilken, D.; Hartman, R. 1991. A revision of the Ipomopsis spicata complex (Polemoniaceae). Systematic Botany. 16: 143-161.

Wilken, D.H.; Fletcher, R. 1988. Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus (Polemoniaceae), a New Species from Northern New Mexico. Brittonia. 40, 1: 48-51.

Magazine Articles

Maschinski, J. 1997. An Update on Research. The Arboretum at Flagstaff: 14. 1. 1-6.

Reports

Maschinski, J. 1995. Final Report on Breeding System and Demography of Holy Ghost Ipomopsis (Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus). Albuquerque, NM: Submitted to U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service New Mexico Ecological Services State Office. p.3.

USFWS. 2002. Holy Ghost ipomopsis (Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus) recovery plan. Albuquerque, New Mexico: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, New Mexico Ecological Services Field Office.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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