CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Cyanea pinnatifida

Photographer:
Elizabeth Huppman

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Cyanea pinnatifida


Family: 
Campanulaceae  
Common Names: 
haha, shark-tail cyanea
Author: 
(Cham.) F. Wimmer
Growth Habit: 
Shrub
CPC Number: 
1188

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Cyanea pinnatifidaenlarge
Photographer: Elizabeth Huppman
Image Owner: Harold L. Lyon Arboretum


Cyanea pinnatifida is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Nellie Sugii contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Cyanea pinnatifida


Cyanea pinnatifida was first collected by Chamisso, the botanist on the Russian exploring expedition which visited Hawai`i in 1816-1817. It grows in the Wai`anae Mountains on the island of O`ahu and has apparently been a rare species for a very long time, as only a few collections have been ever made. For a number of years, only one plant was known in the wild, growing in a preserve managed by The Nature Conservancy. In 1998 it was seen in flower but seed was never found on this plant. Unfortunately, in August 2001 this individuals died. Currently, this species is found only at the Harold L. Lyon Arboretum and the National Tropical Botanical Garden, where individuals plants propagated from the now dead wild individual plant are housed. (USFWS 2002)

Cyanea pinnatifida is a shrub that grows up to 10 feet in height and has long, deeply lobed leaves with 2 to 6 lobes on each side of the leaf. The only other member of the Cyanea genus on the island of Oahu has leaves with 9 to 12 lobes per side. Out of the axils of these leaves arise clusters of 8 to 15 greenish-white flowers with purple stripes. (Wagner et al. 1999) In 1995 the first plant to be seen flowering in 30 years bloomed in a greenhouse at the Lyon Arboretum. This success was the result of a collaborative effort between many people and institutions in Hawaii.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Cyanea pinnatifida
Habitat
  Typically grows on steep, wet, rocky slopes in diverse mesic forests at an elevation of 490 to 520 meters. (USFWS 1998b)

Distribution
  Kalua`a Gulch, O`ahu, Hawai`i. (USFWS 1998b, 2001)

Number Left
  1 site
1 population
1 individual
(USFWS 1998b, 2001)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
8/7/1990
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/2/2001
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
8/1/1998

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii S1 E 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  This species has been observed flowering in August. Otherwise, no information is available on reproductive cycles, longevity, specific environmental requirements or limiting factors (USFWS 1998b). The wild individual was never seen to produce seeds (USFWS 1998b).

Threats
  Probably the greatest threat to this species is the risk of mortality due to environmental disturbances, like soil washout, falling rocks and trees. Other potential threats include predation by rats and slugs, as well as human-caused disturbance of the site. (USFWS 1998b, 2002)

Current Research Summary
  Propagation efforts via tissue culture as well as seed and cuttings has been occurring at a number if institutions, including The Harold L. Lyon Arboretum, National Tropical Botanical Garden, and the DOFAW-Pahole Mid-elevation Nursery (USFWS 1998b).

Current Management Summary
  A number of individual plants, cloned from the single wild plant, have been outplanted at a handful of locations and are being monitored for success (USFWS 1998b).

Research Management Needs
  This species presents a special problem in that it is no longer known in the wild. Surveys need to be conducted in an around historical locations of Cyanea pinnatifida populations to be sure that any wild plants are found.

Research needs for this species are numerous, and include studies on the biology and physiology of the species, as well as environmental requirement and ecological relationship studies.

Ex Situ Needs
  Ex situ conservation is especially important for this species, because without it, there would be no hope for the recovery of this interesting species. Included in the ex situ needs for this species are propagation protocol optimization, germplasm storage, seed banking, and genetic study. (USFWS 1998b)

References

Books (Single Authors)

Wagner, W.L.; Bruegmann, M.M.; Herbst, D.R; Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press Honolulu.

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i--Revised Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. 1853p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Hawaiian Native Plant Genera. Gerald D. Carr, University of Hawaii Botany Department. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/natives.htm. Accessed: 2002.

(2002). Vascular Plant Family Access Page; Campanulaceae. [Web site] University of Hawaii--Botany Department. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/campanul.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Yoshinaga, A. (2002). Seed storage characteristics of Hawaiian species. [Web site] University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96848. http://www.hawaii.edu/scb/seed/seedtabl.html. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Buss, C.C.; Lammers, T.G.; Wise, R.R. 2001. Seed coat morphology and its systematic implications in Cyanea and other genera of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae). American Journal of Botany. 88, 1301-1308

Koob, G.A. 1995. Thirty Years Without a Flower. The Kukui Leaf. XXII: 4-5.

USFWS. 1990. 46 Plants and Animals. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 15, 10: 4-10.

USFWS. 1990. Proposed Endangered Status for 26 Plants from the Waianae Mountains, Island of Oahu, HI. Federal Register. 55, 189: 39664-39680.

USFWS. 1991. Determination of Endangered Status for 26 Plants From the Waianae Mountains, Island of Oahu, Hawaii. Federal Register. 56: 55770-55786.

USFWS. 2002. Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 102: 37108-37156.

Newspaper Articles

1997. Lyon's rare-plant work shows the possibilities. Honolulu Advertiser; Honolulu, HI.

Leone, Diana. 2001 Monday, June 18, 2001. A Little Growing Room: The Nature Conservancy plans to fence land in Honouliuli to save native plants and animals. Honolulu Star-Bulletin; Honolulu, HI. On-line edition.

Taylor, Lois. 1997 Friday, January 24, 1997. Test tube plants preserve species. Honolulu Star Bulletin; Honolulu, HI. Ever Green.

TenBruggencate, Jan. 1996 Sunday, April 28, 1996. Rare plants find new life in lab. The Honolulu Advertiser; Honolulu, HI.

Personal Communications

Lamoureux, C.H. July 21, 1995. Info. on and slides for 20 National Collection taxa for CPC. Letter to Sud, Anukriti. University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Reports

TNC. 2000. Honouliuli Preserve Master Plan. The Nature Conservancy. Web site;.

USFWS. 1995. Recovery Plan for the Wai`anae Plant Cluster. Portland, OR: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.207.

USFWS. 1998. Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.207 , plus appendices. Final Recovery Plan.

USFWS. 2001. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Species List. March 30, 2000. Honolulu: Unpublished. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.19.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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