CPC National Collection Plant Profile

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Clermontia pyrularia


Family: 
Campanulaceae  
Common Names: 
haha, 'oha, 'oha Wai, Pear Clermontia
Author: 
Hillebr.
Growth Habit: 
Tree
CPC Number: 
1018

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Clermontia pyrularia is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Clermontia pyrularia


Named for the pear shape of their fruit, there are likely less than five trees of Clermontia pyrularia left in the wild. These trees are only found on the island of Hawai'i on the facing slopes of two neighboring mountains. The few remaining plants are in extreme danger due to their low numbers and competition from invasive exotics.

This short-lived perennial is a member of the bellflower family (Campanulaceae). It grows as a tree, and has finely-toothed leaves with winged stalks. Its flower and fruit are visible during the months of November and December. This species differs from others in its genus because of its winged petioles, green calyx lobes, two-lipped whitish-green flowers, and the pear shape of its fruit. (USFWS 2002)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Clermontia pyrularia
Habitat
  Koa and 'ohi'a dominated montane wet forests and subalpine dry forests at elevations between 3000 and 7000 feet (USFWS 1994).

Associated species include Lythrum maritimum (pukamole), and Rubus hawaiensis ('akala) (USFWS 1994).

Distribution
  Found on the northeastern slope of Mauna Kea, the western slope of Mauna Loa and the saddle (area in-between the two volcanoes) on the island of Hawaii (USFWS 1994).

Number Left
  This species is currently known in the wild in one populations composed of several individuals on State-owned land. There are also two outplanted populations on land nearby on State and Federally-owned lands. (USFWS 2002).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
6/3/1997
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii S1 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  This species has been observed in flower and fruit during the months of November and December. No other life history information is known. (USFWS 2002)

Threats
  Primary threats to this species (as stated by [USFWS 2002]) include:
Competition with non-native plants
Fruit and seed predation by rats
A scattered distribution of few populations and a small number of individuals, making the species extremely vulnerable to extinction from natural or human-caused events.
Loss of pollinators
Browsing by cattle and feral hogs

Current Research Summary
  None known.

Current Management Summary
  Two populations have been outplanted on State and Federal lands (USFWS 2002).

Research Management Needs
  Monitor wild and outplanted populations to determine why seedlings are not surviving to maturity.
Manage to eliminate competition and harm from non-native plants and animals.

Ex Situ Needs
  Assess genetic diversity of known wild population and attempt to capture that diversity in outplanted and ex situ populations.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Wagner, W.L.; Bruegmann, M.M.; Herbst, D.R; Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press Honolulu.

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i--Revised Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. 1853p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Journal Articles

Lammers, T.G. 1991. Systematics of Clermontia (Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae). Systematic Botany Monographs. 32: 1-97.

Rock, J.F. 1919. A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, family Campanulaceae. Mem. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. 7, 2: 1-395.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1994. Determination of Endangered or Threatened Status for 21 Plants from the Island of Hawaii, State of Hawaii. Federal Register. 59, 43: 10305-10325.

USFWS. 2002. Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 102: 36968-37016.

Reports

1998. Hawaii's Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge: A rainforest degraded by grazing, logging and burning is being returned to its native state, with help from numerous volunteers -- and NRDC members. Natural Resources Defense Council.

USFWS. 1996. Big Island Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.202 +.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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