CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Heading for profile page
CPC Home Join now
About CPC
CPC National Collection
Conservation Directory Resources
Invasive Plant Species Plant News
Plant Links Participating Institutions
Contribute
Search CPC
Search    Alphabetical List    Reference Finder    CPC Home


CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Amaranthus pumilus


Family: 
Amaranthaceae  
Common Names: 
Seabeach amaranth, Seabeach pigweed
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
100

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


Profile Links
 ITIS
 Tropicos
 PLANTS
 Fish & WildLife

Amaranthus pumilus is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Amaranthus pumilus


The Seabeach amaranth is endemic to the Atlantic coastal plain beaches, where it is currently found in Maryland, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, and South Carolina. It historically occurred in nine states, but is now extirpated from the states of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Delaware, Virginia, and Connecticut. (USFWS 1993; Lea 1999) The primary reason for this species decline, and a continual threat to the survival of this species, is shoreline development. (Lea 1999)

This species occurs on barrier island beaches in areas where there is low competition from other vegetation. This plant acts as a "sand binder", with a single large plant capable of creating a mini-dune up to 6 decimeters in height that contains up to 2 to 3 cubic meters of sand! (USFWS 1993)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Maryland
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
South Carolina
State Range of  Amaranthus pumilus
Habitat
  Overwash flats at accreting ends of coastal islands, lower foredunes, and upper strands of noneroding beaches (landward of the wrackline) (USFWS 1993)

Distribution
  Maryland, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, and South Carolina (USFWS 1993; Lea 1999)

Number Left
  At the time of listing, this species was known from 13 populations in NY, 34 populations in NC and 8 populations in SC (USFWS 1993). In 1999, a plant was found in Maryland (Lea 1999)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
12/12/2008
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LT
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
11/12/1996

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Connecticut SU SC  
  Delaware SH 1/16/1992  
  Maryland S1 E 4/30/2001  
  Massachusetts SX - H 6/2/1989  
  New Jersey E 9/1/2001  
  New York S2 E 5/1/2002  
  North Carolina S2 T 1/1/2002  
  Rhode Island SH FT/SH 2/22/1990  
  South Carolina S1 5/1/2000  
  Virginia SH 10/23/1990  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Unknown.

Threats
  Beach stabilization structures
Off-road vehicles
Beach erosion and tidal inundation
Storm-related erosion, dune movement
Fragmentation-surviving patches of suitable habitat tend to be too far apart for seeds to travel and recolonize
Predation by webworms (reducing the length of the reproductive season for the plant)
(USFWS 1993)

Current Research Summary
  Unknown.

Current Management Summary
  The Maryland Department of Agriculture and the University of Kentucky have plans for an experimental restoration of this species in Maryland at the site it was discovered at in 1999. (Lea 1999)

Research Management Needs
 

Ex Situ Needs
 

References

Books (Single Authors)

Brown, M.L.; Brown, R.G. 1984. Herbaceous plants of Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Port City Press, Inc.

Gleason, H.A.; Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Bronx: The New York Botanical Garden.

Gray, A.; Fernald, M.L. 1987. Gray's manual of botany: a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Portland, Or.: Dioscorides Press. 1632p.

Radford, A.E.; Ahles, H.E.; Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1183p.

Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. New York, NY: Hafner Publishing Company. 1505p.

Weakley, A.S.; Bucher, M.A. 1992. Status survey of seabeach amaranth (Amaranthus pumilus Rafinesque) in North and South Carolina, (after Hurricane Hugo). Asheville, North Carolina: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. 178p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Oldfield, M.L. 1984. The Genetic Improvement of Amaranth. The Value of Conserving Genetic Resources. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Washington, D.C. p 51-53.

Journal Articles

Baskin, J.M; Baskin, C.C. 1998. Scientific Note: Seed Dormancy and Germination in the Rare Plant Species Amaranthus pumilus. Castanea. 63, 4: 493.

Lamont, E.E.; Fitzgerald, J.M. 2000. Noteworthy plants reported from the Torrey Range - 2000. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 128

Lea, C. 1999. Return of a Rare Species. Marilandica The Maryland Native Plant Society Quarterly. 7, 3: 8.

Marcone, M.F. 2000. First report of the characterization of the threatened plant species Amaranthus pumilus (Seabeach Amaranth). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 48, 2: 378-382.

McMahan, L.R. 1988. CPC 1987--A Successful Collecting Year. The Center for Plant Conservation. 3, 2: Cover.

Ramsey, S.; Tyndall, R.W; Lea, C. 2000. Scientific Note: The Federally Threatened Amaranthus pumilus Raf. (Seabeach amaranth, Amaranthaceae) Rediscovered on Assateague Island After 31 Years. Castanea. 65, 2: 165.

Randall, J. 2002. Bringing Back a Fugitive. Endangered Species Bulletin. 27, 3: 16-17.

USFWS. 1989. Regional News--Region 4. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 14, 1-2: 14.

USFWS. 1993. Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth) determined to be threatened: Final rule. Federal Register. 58, 65: 18035-18042.

Reports

USFWS. 1996. Recovery Plan for Seabeach Amaranth (Amaranthus pumilius Rafinesque). Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.59.

USFWS. 1999. U.S. Listed Flowering Plant Species Index By Lead Region and Status. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.

Weakley, A.; Bucher, M. 1991. Status survey of seabeach amaranth (Amaranthus pumilus Rafinesque) in North and South Carolina, second edition (after Hurricane Hugo). Raleigh and Asheville, North Carolina: North Carolina Plant Conservation Program, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Endangered Species Field Office, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.149.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
California
Oregon
Washington
Idaho
Nevada
Arizona
Utah
Montana
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Oklahoma
Texas
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
Arkansas
Louisiana
Wisconsin
Illinois
Michigan
Michigan
Indiana
Ohio
Kentucky
Tennessee
Mississippi
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
South Carolina
North Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
New Jersey
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Vermont
New Hampshire
Maine
New York
New York
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii