CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Callirhoe scabriuscula

Photographer:
C. McDonald

Heading for profile page
CPC Home Join now
About CPC
CPC National Collection
Conservation Directory Resources
Invasive Plant Species Plant News
Plant Links Participating Institutions
Contribute
Search CPC
Search    Alphabetical List    Reference Finder    CPC Home


CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Callirhoe scabriuscula


Family: 
Malvaceae  
Common Name: 
Texas poppy-mallow
Author: 
B.L. Robins.
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
675

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


Profile Links
 ITIS
 Tropicos
 PLANTS
 Fish & WildLife

Callirhoe scabriusculaenlarge
Photographer: C. McDonald

Callirhoe scabriusculaenlarge
Image Owner: San Antonio Botanical Garden


Callirhoe scabriuscula is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Cindy Barrett contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Callirhoe scabriuscula


Texas Poppy Mallow is a perennial herb about 18 inches high with beautiful wine-purple, cup-shaped flowers. These flowers bloom from May to June, and a key source of nectar, pollen, and shelter for bees in the area. These bees help the plant reproduce by spreading pollen between plants. Each flower opens in the morning a few hours after sunrise, closing right before sunset. If a flower is lucky enough to be pollinated by a visiting bee, it will close 30 to 90 minutes later, never opening again, and well on its way to producing seed. If a flower is not pollinated, it will continue its daily opening and closing ritual for six to eight days before wilting, unpollinated. (Texas Parks and Wildlife 2002)

It occurs within the Rolling Plains vegetation zone of Texas. It is limited to deep, loose sand (USFWS 1985). Seed has been collected from this member of the Winecup genus and is being propagated at the San Antonio Botanical Garden. There is difficulty in transplanting the greenhouse grown plants into test plots (Merritt, pers. comm.)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Texas
State Range of  Callirhoe scabriuscula
Habitat
  Loose, deep sand along the upper Colorado River. (USFWS 1981)

Distribution
  Coke, Mitchell, and Runnels counties in Texas (Texas Parks and Wildlife 2002)

Number Left
  There are over 10 known populations in three Texas counties, at least one of which has landowner protection. (Texas Parks and Wildlife 2002)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
1/16/2002
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/24/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
3/29/1985

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Texas S2 E 9/5/1989  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Pollinated by bees.

Threats
  Threats include habitat loss due to farming, pasture planting, sand mining, and urban development. Because the flowers of this species are so beautiful, it is also susceptible to flower-picking, which is detrimental to the remaining populations because it inhibits seed production in populations.

Current Research Summary
  The San Antonio Botanical Garden has grown plants from seed. Seed germinates but is difficult to transplant.
Cruze studied the seed bank and population dynamics of this species (Cruze 1991; Cruze and Amos 1992)

Current Management Summary
  Several plants were maintained in a test plot but deteriorated after several years.

Research Management Needs
  Growth protocol research
Seed collection from wild populations

Ex Situ Needs
  Seed collection needed so as to send seed to the National Seed Storage Laboratory.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Correll, D.S.; Johnston, M.C. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Renner: Texas Research Foundation. 1881p.

Poole, J.M.; Riskind, D.H. 1987. Endangered, threatened, or protected native plants of Texas. Austin, TX: Texas Parks Wildlife Department.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Conference Proceedings

Cruze, P.; Amos, B. Studies of the Seed Bank and Pollination Dymanics of an Endangered Species, Callirhoe scabriuscula. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; 30 March - 2 April; Santa Fe, NM. In: Sivinski, R.; Lightfoot, K., editors. 1992. New Mexico Forestry and Resources Conservation Division. p 345-358.

Poole, J.; Janssen, G.K. Managing and Monitoring Rare and Endangered Plants on Highway Rights-of-way in Texas. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; September 11-14; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, J.; Hammond, H.D.; Holter, L., editors. 1996. USDA and US Forest Service. p 8-12.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Texas Threatened and Endangered Plants--Profiles. Texas Parks and Wildlife. http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/nature/endang/plants/index.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Dorr, L.J. 1990. A revision of the North American genus Callirhoe. Memoirs New York Botanical Garden. 56: 1-74.

Dorr, L.J. 1994. Plants in Peril, 21: Callirhoe scabriuscula. The Kew magazine. 11, 3: 146.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1980. Proposal to determine Callirhoe scabriuscula (Texas poppy-mallow) to be an endangered species. Federal Register. 45, 119: 41322-41324.

USFWS. 1980. Two Texas Plants Proposed as Endangered. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 5, 7: 10.

USFWS. 1981. Determination of Callirhoe scabriuscula to be an endangered species. Federal Register. 46, 8: 3184-3186.

Personal Communications

Merritt, J. 2001. Janis Merritt, Native Plant Curator, San Antonio Botanical Garden, personal communication to Cindy Barrett.

Reports

Poole, J.M. 1990. Habitat delineation and subsequent searches for Callirhoe scabriuscula. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.80.

USFWS. 1985. Texas poppy-mallow, Callirhoe scabriuscula Robins recovery plan. Albuquerque, New Mexico: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Region 2.

Theses

Amos, Bonnie Beth. 1981. Reproductive Studies In The Genus Callirhoe (Malvaceae). [Ph.D. Thesis]: The University of Oklahoma. 81p.

Cruze, Patty Bronita. 1991. Studies of the seed bank and population dynamics of an endangered species, Callirhod scabriuscula. [M.S. Thesis]: Angelo State University. Texas.

Dorr, L.J. 1983. The systematics and evolution of the genus Callirhoe (Malvaceae). [Ph.D. Thesis]: University of Texas. Austin.

Giles, Stephanie Denise. 1991. A comparative investigation of genetic diversity of Callirhoe scabriuscula (Malvaceae) and Callirhoe involucrate. [M.S. Thesis]: Angelo State University.


  This profile was updated on 9/28/2010
California
Oregon
Washington
Idaho
Nevada
Arizona
Utah
Montana
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Oklahoma
Texas
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
Arkansas
Louisiana
Wisconsin
Illinois
Michigan
Michigan
Indiana
Ohio
Kentucky
Tennessee
Mississippi
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
South Carolina
North Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
New Jersey
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Vermont
New Hampshire
Maine
New York
New York
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii