CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis

Photographer:

Heading for profile page
CPC Home Join now
About CPC
CPC National Collection
Conservation Directory Resources
Invasive Plant Species Plant News
Plant Links Participating Institutions
Contribute
Search CPC
Search    Alphabetical List    Reference Finder    CPC Home


CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis


Family: 
Malvaceae  
Common Name: 
hau Kuahiwi
Author: 
Rock
Growth Habit: 
Tree
CPC Number: 
2253

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


Profile Links
 ITIS
 Tropicos
 PLANTS
 Fish & WildLife
 Arkive

Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensisenlarge
Image Owner: National Tropical Botanical Garden

Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensisenlarge
Photographer: S. Perlman
Image Owner: National Tropical Botanical Garden


Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis


There are seven species of Hibiscadelphus, an genus endemic to Hawaii, and four of those species are now extinct. H. hualalaiensis is one of the 3 remaining species, but is itself extinct in the wild, with only 22 plants surviving in cultivation today. The species was discovered in 1909 on the slopes of the volcano Hualalai on the big island of Hawai’i, and was thus named after the volcano where it occurred.

H. hualalaiensis, a member of the hibiscus family (Malvaceae) is a 5 to 7 meter tree that has a trunk up to 30 centimeters in diameter. The leaf blades are heart-shaped with entire margins. The flower petals are greenish yellow on the outside, and yellowish green fading to purplish within (2 to 5.5 cm. Long). The fruit of H. hualalaiensis is woody with dense hairs covering its seed (USFWS 1998).

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis
Habitat
  H. hualalaiensis is restricted to dry to mesic forests and lava flows, 915 to 1,020 meters elevation on Hawai’i (Wagner et al. 1999).

Associated species of H. hualalaiensis include Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia), Diospyros sandwicensis (lama), Sophora chrysophylla (mamane), Myoporum sandwixense (naio), Pouteria sandwicensis (alaa), Charpentiera sp. (papala), Nothocestrum sp. (aiea), Claoxylon sandwicense (poola), and Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu grass).

Distribution
  This species was historically known from three populations in the Puu Waawaa region of Hualalai, on the island of Hawai’i. In 1992, the last known wild tree of H. hualalaiensis died, making this species extinct in the wild. There were nine trees cultivated by the Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DLNR, DOFAW) descended from that one tree that has been planted in the Puu Waawaa Wildlife Sanctuary (USFWS 1998).

Number Left
  Number of Populations: 0 (USFWS 2001)
Number of Plants: 22 (USFWS 2001)

Protection

Global Rank:  
GHC
 
11/25/1996
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/10/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
5/11/1998

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii SH 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  None known.

Threats
  Threats to H. hualalaiensis include:
• fire
• degradation of habitat by domestic and feral cattle, feral pigs and sheep
• flower and seed predation by rats
• competition from invasive introduced plants such as Lantana camara (lantana)
• ranching activities
• habitat changes from volcanic activity.
• H. hualalaiensis is also at risk of extinction due to a low number of cultivated individuals
(USFWS 1998)

Current Research Summary
  In the 1970's, a number of individuals studied the effects of hybridization between this species the closely related, also endangered, Hibiscadelphus giffardianus. (Baker & Allen 1976, Baker & Allen 1977, Carr & Baker 1977, Degener & Degener 1977) These two species did not naturally occur together, but had been planted near each other in Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park during early conservation efforts. It was eventually determined that this situation resulted in hybridization between the two species. The decision was made to remove H. hualalaiensis from the park in order to maintain the genetic integrity of both species. Today, both of these species are maintained in cultivated settings.

Current Management Summary
  Small areas have been fenced around the two outplanted populations to exclude livestock and feral ungulates at the Puu Waawaa Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kokia Sanctuary in Kawaihae. No other specific measures have been taken.

Volcano Rare Plant Facility (VRPF) has 10 plants in their nursery and Waimea Falls Park (WFP) has 4 plants; however they are doing poorly. The National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) currently has ex situ holdings of 172 seeds in its seed bank, and 14 individuals in the botanical garden (USFWS 1998).

Research Management Needs
  1. Outplant new populations in areas managed. Prior to outplanting, the sites should be fenced, free of weeds and free of rats and feral ungulates.
2. Reduce threats from rodent predation. Diphacinone bait block are successfully being used but a more broad scale method such as aerial dispersal of rodenticide should be considered.
3. Protect populations from fire. Steps should be taken to prevent the extirpation of the outplanted populations and future outplanting from wildfires. Removing alien grasses may help to reduce the fuel load.
4. Conduct pollination biology, seed dispersal mechanism, and molecular phylogenetic studies on H. hualalaiensis.
5. Map genetic diversity in the surviving populations of H. hualalaiensis.
6. Test the influence of weeding and fencing on populations of H. hualalaiensis.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin, M. Maunder, and USFWS (1998).

Ex Situ Needs
  1. Establish secure ex situ stocks with full founder representation.
2. Develop proper horticultural protocols and pest management for H. hualalaiensis.
3. Survey ex situ holdings and conduct molecular fingerprinting.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin and M. Maunder.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Rock, J.F. 1913. The indigenous trees of the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu, HI: Published privately. 512p.

Wagner, W.L.; Bruegmann, M.M.; Herbst, D.R; Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press Honolulu.

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i--Revised Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. 1853p.

Books (Sections)

Funk, V.A.; Wagner, W.L. 1995. Biogeography of seven ancient Hawaiian plant lineages. In: Wagner, W.L.; Funk, V.A., editors. Hawaiian Biogeography: Evolution on a Hot Spot Archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C.

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

NatureServe. (2008). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. [Internet].Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed: (June 17, 2008).

USFWS. (2001). Unpublished data. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii 96817. Accessed: 2001.

Journal Articles

Baker, J.K. 1980. The plant genus Hibiscadelphus in Hawai'i. The Cooperative National Park Resources Study Unit, Hawaii: Technical Report. 34: 1-31.

Baker, J.K.; Allen, S. 1977. Hybrid Hibiscadelphus (Malvaceae) in the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science. 31, 3: 285-291.

Baker, K.; Allen, S. 1976. Hybrid Hibiscadelphus (Malvaceae) from Hawaii. Phytologia. 33, 4: 276.

Carr, G.D.; Baker, J.K. 1977. Cytogenetics of Hibiscadelphus (Malvaceae): A Meotic Analysis of Hybrids in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Pacific Science. 31, 2: 191-194.

Degener, I.; Degener, O. 1977. Hibiscadelphus number KK-HX-1: An international treasure in Hawaii. Phytologia. 35, 5: 385-396.

Ellshoff, Z.E. 1991. The Rarest Hawaiian Members of the Hibiscus Family. National Tropical Botanical Garden: The Bulletin. 21, 3: 7-12.

Hobdy, R.W. 1984. A re-evaluation of the genus Hibiscadelphus (Malvaceae) and the description of a new species. Occasional Papers of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. 25: 1-7.

Lorence, D.H.; Wagner, W.L. 1995. Another New, Nearly Extinct Species of Hibiscaldelphus (Malvaceae) from the Hawaiian Islands. Novon. 5, 2: 183-187.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1995. Proposed endangered status for thirteen plants from the island of Hawaii, state of Hawaii. Federal Register. 60, 185: 48377-48392.

USFWS. 1996. Determination of endangered status for thirteen plants from the island of Hawaii, state of Hawaii. Federal Register. 61, 198: 53137-53153.

USFWS. 2002. Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 102: 36968-37016.

Reports

USFWS. 1998. Big Island II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Big Island Plant Cluster. Portland, OR: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.80 + appendices.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
California
Oregon
Washington
Idaho
Nevada
Arizona
Utah
Montana
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Oklahoma
Texas
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
Arkansas
Louisiana
Wisconsin
Illinois
Michigan
Michigan
Indiana
Ohio
Kentucky
Tennessee
Mississippi
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
South Carolina
North Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
New Jersey
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Vermont
New Hampshire
Maine
New York
New York
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii