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Genetic Consideration in Ecological Restoration Bibliography

Topic Chosen:
   Application of genetic considerations to ecological restoration

 
Annese, V.; Cazzato, E.; Corleto, A. 2006. Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Natural Ecotypes of Perennial Grasses (Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Phalaris tuberosa L., Brachypodium rupestre (Host) R. et S.) Collected in Southern Italy. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 53, 2: 431-441.  
 
In 1999, natural populations of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Phalaris tuberosa L. and the macrotherm species Brachypodium rupestre (Host) R. et S., were collected as seed in Southern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Campania regions) to evaluate the potential as forage of native germplasm under dry conditions, using available commercial cultivars as controls. The persistence of accessions, biometric, phenologic, productive and qualitative parameters of forage have been studied for a 3-year period (2000-2002) in a typical Mediterranean environment. D. glomerata is widely present in the studied area with two subspecies (subsp. glomerata L., subsp. hispanica (Roth) Nyman). The research pointed out significant differences in plant size, earliness and single plant dry matter (DM) production. All the natural ecotypes belonging to this species showed higher persistence than the control cultivars. Some natural ecotypes appeared to have potential for improving DM yield (subsp. glomerata ecotypes) and reducing neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content (subsp. hispanica ecotypes). Natural ecotypes belonging to F. arundinacea, P. tuberosa, and B. rupestre are sporadically present in the studied area. Among them, two ecotypes of P. tuberosa, showing higher winter growth and earliness compared to cv. 'Holdfast', seem to be interesting for a future breeding programme. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of ecotypes; Characteristics of cultivars; Comparison of cultivar and non-selected plant material;   
 

 
Ashley, M.V.; Willson, M.F.; Pergams, O.R.W.; O'Dowd, D.J.; Gende, S.M.; Brown, J.S. 2003. Evolutionarily enlightened management. Biological Conservation. 111, 2: 115-123.  
 
Here we review growing evidence that microevolutionary changes may often be rapid and, in many cases, occur on time frames comparable to human disturbance and anthropogenic change. Contemporary evolutionary change has been documented in relatively pristine habitats, in disturbed populations, under captive management, and in association with both intentional and inadvertent introductions. We argue that evolutionary thinking is thus relevant to conservation biology and resource management but has received insufficient consideration. Ignoring evolution may have a variety of consequences, including unpredicted evolutionary responses to disturbance and naive or inappropriate management decisions. Philosophically, we must also grapple with the issue of whether the evolution of adaptations to disturbance and degraded habitats is sometimes beneficial or something to be rigorously avoided. We advocate promoting evolutionarily enlightened management [Lecture Notes in Biomathematics 99 (1994) 248], in which both the ecological and evolutionary consequences of resource management decisions are considered. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Aubry, C.; Shoal, R.; Erickson, V.J. 2005. Grass cultivars: Their origins, development, and use on national forests and grasslands in the Pacific Northwest.  
 
Grass cultivars are a distinct subset of a species, often intentionally bred to behave uniformly and predictably when grown in an environment to which the species is adapted. A cultivar, also called a variety or a release, is given a unique trade name chosen by the breeder. These single-word names (such as 'Arlington', 'Bromar' or 'Secar') most often relate to the place of origin, species name, cultivar characteristics, or an individual involved in the process. Grass cultivars have been used in large quantities, often without an assessment of the consequences. Since grass cultivars vary in their origins, development history, and effects on native plant populations, it is important to know more than the brand name and the species name when considering a seed source for revegetation. Although a cultivar has been developed for particular uses or appears to be adapted to a wide range of conditions, the material may not necessarily be suitable or optimal for all situations. Use of such material may have long-term and possibly irreversible genetic and ecological effects. Therefore it is essential to have a thorough understanding of plant material genetic origins, biological attributes, and level of compatibility with management objectives. In this paper we address the origins, and development of grass cultivars that have been used on national forests and grasslands in the Pacific Northwest. The genetic and ecological consequences of their use are discussed as well as recommendations for selection of plant materials for restoration projects. 
 
Included in Topics:  Characteristics of cultivars; Comparison of cultivar and non-selected plant material; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Backman, T. 1985. Selection of Zostera Marina L. Ecotypes for transplanting. OCEANS. 17: 1088- 1093.  
 
The restoration and enhancement of eelgrass meadows are becoming common place in coastal marshes and bays. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) research has demonstrated that the species has several ecotypes each with different biomass, morphology and habitat dependent phenoptypes. Transplanting success and ecosystem enhancement can be improved with the proper selection of suitable ecotypes. Applicable selection criteria include the desired outcome phenotype, habitat characteristics, cost and logistics of transplanting. In habitats where more that one ecotype can survive selection can be based on desirable structural and functional aspects of the resultant eelgrass habitat. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of ecotypes; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
Bangert, R.K.; Turek, R.J.; Martinsen, G.D.; Wimp, G.M.; Bailey, J.K.; Whitham, T.G. 2005. Benefits of Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity to Arthropod Diversity. Conservation Biology. 19, 2: 379-390.  
 
We argue that the genetic diversity of a dominant plant is important to the associated dependent community because dependent species such as herbivores are restricted to a subset of genotypes in the host-plant population. For plants that function as habitat, we predicted that greater genetic diversity in the plant population would be associated with greater diversity in the dependent arthropod community. Using naturally hybridizing cottonwoods ( Populus spp.) in western North America as a model system, we tested the general hypothesis that arthropod alpha (within cross-type richness) and beta (among cross-type composition) diversities are correlated with cottonwood cross types from local to regional scales. In common garden experiments and field surveys, leaf-modifying arthropod richness was significantly greater on either the F1 (1.54 times) or backcross (1.46 times) hybrid cross types than on the pure broadleaf cross type ( P. deltoides Marshallor P. fremontii Watson). Composition was significantly different among three cross types of cottonwoods at all scales. Within a river system, cottonwood hybrid zones had 1.49 times greater richness than the broadleaf zone, and community composition was significantly different between each parental zone and the hybrid zone, demonstrating a hierarchical concentration of diversity. Overall, the habitats with the highest cottonwood cross-type diversity also had the highest arthropod diversity. These data show that the genetics of habitat is an important conservation concept and should be a component of conservation theory. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Bangert, R.K.; Turek, R.J.; Rehill, B.; Wimp, G.M.; Schweitzer, J.A.; Allan, G.J.; Bailey, J.K.; Martinsen, G.D.; Keim, P.; Lindroth, R.L.; Whitham, T.G. 2006. A genetic similarity rule determines arthropod community structure. Molecular Ecology. 15: 1379-1391.  
 
We define a genetic similarity rule that predicts how genetic variation in a dominant plant affects the structure of an arthropod community. This rule applies to hybridizing cottonwood species where plant genetic variation determines plant-animal interactions and structures a dependent community of leaf-modifying arthropods. Because the associated arthropod community is expected to respond to important plant traits, we also tested whether plant chemical composition is one potential intermediate link between plant genes and arthropod community composition. Two lines of evidence support our genetic similarity rule. First, in a common garden experiment we found that trees with similar genetic compositions had similar chemical compositions and similar arthropod compositions. Second, in a wild population, we found a similar relationship between genetic similarity in cottonwoods and the dependent arthropod community. Field data demonstrate that the relationship between genes and arthropods was also significant when the hybrids were analysed alone, i.e. the pattern is not dependent upon the inclusion of both parental species. Because plant-animal interactions and natural hybridization are common to diverse plant taxa, we suggest that a genetic similarity rule is potentially applicable, and may be extended, to other systems and ecological processes. For example, plants with similar genetic compositions may exhibit similar litter decomposition rates. A corollary to this genetic similarity rule predicts that in systems with low plant genetic variability, the environment will be a stronger factor structuring the dependent community. Our findings argue that the genetic composition of a dominant plant can structure higher order ecological processes, thus placing community and ecosystem ecology within a genetic and evolutionary framework. A genetic similarity rule also has important conservation implications because the loss of genetic diversity in one species, especially dominant or keystone species that define many communities, may cascade to negatively affect the rest of the dependent community. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Beaulieu, J.; Perron, M.; Bousquet, J. 2004. Multivariate patterns of adaptive genetic variation and seed source transfer in Picea mariana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 34, 3: 531-545.  
 
A short-term retrospective test trial was carried out using 90 open-pollinated families representing 30 provenances of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) from Quebec. Seedlings were transplanted on three sites along a latitudinal gradient, and eleven growth and phenological traits were measured during the second and the third growing seasons. Analyses of variance indicated for most of the traits significant differences among provenances and families-within-provenances. Principal component analysis was used to summarize the variation observed among provenances into two principal components, which accounted for 79% of the total variation for all traits. Regression models developed to relate each trait and the principal component scores to geoclimatic variables explained between 55% and 86% of the variation observed among provenances. Variation in growth traits and phenological traits appeared to be related to geoclimatic factors. The models were validated using data from a range-wide provenance test, and relative risks associated with seed source transfer were estimated. The R2 values between the transfer risk and the provenance heights ranged from 0.02 to 0.58, whereas they were slightly lower for diameters. On average, the relative risks varied from 36% to 67%. Individual provenance values ranged from 4% to 94%. A geographic information system tool was designed to assist the forest managers in making seed transfer decisions. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of ecotypes; Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Examples of assessing the risk of seed source transfer; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Bischoff, A.; Vonlanthen, B.; Steinger, T.; Muller-Scharer, H. 2006. Seed provenance matters - Effects on germination of four plant species used for ecological restoration. Basic and Applied Ecology. 7, 4: 347-359.  
 
The use of local seed provenances is often recommended in restoration and habitat creation because they are thought to be better adapted to local habitat conditions. However, spatial scales and the degree of population differentiation are not well known and germination is often not included in comparisons between provenances. We analysed germination as a key trait of plant development in five provenances of four species used for ecological restoration on arable land (wildflower strips). Germination was tested under different conditions in growth chambers (early vs. late spring) and in the field (non-com petition vs. competition). We also examined the contribution of non-genetic (maternal) effects to population differentiation. Large differences in germination traits were found between the provenances in growth chambers and in the field. The ranking was species - specific, but largely consistent across all tested environments. Local provenances did not generally exhibit higher germination percentages in the field relative to non-local provenances. Due to the high stability of germination traits across various environments, growth chamber tests provided a reliable prediction for provenance differences in the field. The differences among provenances seemed to be largely genetically determined as the inclusion of seed mass in the analysis to control for maternal. effects did not decrease the degree differences between-provenance differences. In one species, however, non-genetic contributions to population differentiation were found by comparing F1 seeds grown under homogeneous conditions and original seed material. We conclude that potentially large between -provenance differences in germination traits need to be considered in ecological. restoration projects, particularly in non-permanent systems where they may determine vegetation devetopment. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of genetic and environmental interactions; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Booth, R.E.; Grime, J.P. 2003. Effects of genetic impoverishment on plant community diversity. Journal of Ecology. 91: 721-730.  
 
1 Established individuals removed at random from populations of 11 long-lived herbaceous species coexisting in a local area of ancient limestone pasture at Cressbrookdale in North Derbyshire were subjected to clonal propagation to produce stocks of genetically identical individuals sufficient to create 36 model communities identical in species composition but widely contrasted in genetic diversity. 2 Three levels of genetic diversity were imposed. In one treatment, all individuals of each species were genetically unique. The second contained four randomly selected genotypes of each species. In the third, there was no genetic diversity in any of the species but each community contained a unique combination of genotypes. 3 Over a period of 5 years the communities were allowed to develop in microcosms containing natural rendzina soil and exposed to a standardized regime of simulated grazing and trampling. The treatments were maintained by the removal of flowers, immature seed-heads and seedlings originating from the seed-bank and seed rain. Point quadrat surveys were used to monitor changes in species composition and diversity in the three experimental treatments. 4 During the experiment a distinction rapidly developed between five canopy dominants and five subordinates, a process that caused the vegetation structure to closely resemble that occurring at Cressbrookdale. 5 A gradual loss of species diversity occurred in all three treatments but by the end of the fifth growing season species diversity was higher in the most genetically diverse communities. 6 Ordination of the 36 communities at intervals over a 5-year period revealed a gradual convergence in the species composition of the 4-genotype and 16-genotype communities and this effect was more strongly developed in the latter. A comparable process was not observed in the 1-genotype communities, suggesting that interaction between particular genotypes of different species in local neighbourhoods may be an essential part of the mechanism that determines the predictable composition of a mature pasture community. 7 It is concluded that, under the conditions of this experiment, genetic diversity within component species reduced the rate at which species diversity declined. The relative importance in this effect of factors such as greater disease resistance and moderated competitive interactions remains uncertain. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success;   
 

 
Booy, G.; Hendriks, R.J.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Vosman, B. 2000. Genetic Diversity and the Survival of Populations. Plant Biology. 2, 4: 379-395.  
 
In this comprehensive review, a range of factors is considered that may influence the significance of genetic diversity for the survival of a population. Genetic variation is essential for the adaptability of a population in which quantitatively inherited, fitness-related traits are crucial. Therefore, the relationship between genetic diversity and fitness should be studied in order to make predictions on the importance of genetic diversity for a specific population. The level of genetic diversity found in a population highly depends on the mating system, the evolutionary history of a species and the population history (the latter is usually unknown), and on the level of environmental heterogeneity. An accurate estimation of fitness remains complex, despite the availability of a range of direct and indirect fitness parameters. There is no general relationship between genetic diversity and various fitness components. However, if a lower level of heterozygosity represents an increased level of inbreeding, a reduction in fitness can be expected. Molecular markers can be used to study adaptability or fitness, provided that they represent a quantitative trait locus (QTL) or are themselves functional genes involved in these processes. Next to a genetic response of a population to environmental change, phenotypic plasticity in a genotype can affect fitness. The relative importance of plasticity to genetic diversity depends on the species and population under study and on the environmental conditions. The possibilities for application of current knowledge on genetic diversity and population survival for the management of natural populations are discussed. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of how species characteristics (life history, mating system, distribution, seed banking) may affect patterns of genetic variation; Examples of genetic and environmental interactions; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Boulding, E.G.; Hay, T. 2001. Genetic and demographic parameters determining population persistence after a discrete change in the environment. Heredity. 86: 313-324.  
 
Field studies suggest that populations often go extinct following discrete changes in the environment. However, populations may avoid extinction by rapidly adapting to their altered environment. We used a stochastic finite-locus model to estimate the distance the optimal value of a quantitative trait could shift in a single step (Dhc) without causing more than 5% of the replicate populations to go extinct. We found that evolution increased the magnitude of (Dhc) by at least two phenotypic standard deviations and that such evolution could take place within 5-10 generations. Indeed (Dhc)2 increased approximately linearly with the logarithm of the initial population size and the rate of this increase was much greater when heritability was high or when stabilizing selection was weak. (Dhc)2 also increased approximately linearly with the logarithm of per capita fecundity. To our surprise there was no `demographic rescue' effect from migration; a population augmented with migrants from a neighbouring population where environmental conditions were unchanged was always more likely to go extinct. The addition of mutation, more loci, density-dependence, or environmental stochasticity had only small effects on the outcome. We were able to compare our results for closed populations with density-independent population growth to those from an analytical model and found good agreement so long as the proportion of the offspring surviving selection in the initial generations was at least 1%. FROM LAST PARAGRAPH Our results suggest that the conservation of populations of species with low potential fecundities is inherently more difficult than those of species with high potential fecundities because they are more likely to go extinct after a discrete change in the environment. Of the genetic and demographic parameters that can be manipulated by conservation managers, our results show that maintaining a large population size and high levels of additive genetic variance are critical if the population is to adapt to discrete shifts in environmental conditions caused by a move to new habitat or exposure to new disease, competitors, or predators. Our model also suggests caution about maintaining genetic diversity by deliberately transplanting individuals among subpopulations (e.g. Nunney & Campbell, 1993). If the local selective pressures are different in the different subpopulations then our results suggest that transplants are likely to imperil the subpopulations instead of rescuing them. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of changes in genetic diversity and local adaptation over time; Global climate change and genetic implications for ecological restoration; Theoretical discussion of hybridization; Theoretical discussion of outbreeding depression; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Burton, P.J.; Burton, C.M. 2002. Promoting Genetic Diversity in the Production of Large Quantities of Native Plant Seed. Ecological Restoration. 20, 2: 117-123.  
 
Focuses on a five-year research program to collect, propagate and screen common native grasses, sedges, legumes and other forbs for use in the northern interior of British Columbia. Discusses reasons revegetation with native plants is preferable to the use of domesticated exotic species, even when full ecosystem restoration is not the goal, and ways in which the production of large quantities of native seed can most effectively be accomplished. The authors are proponents of including genetic material beyond local populations in restoration seed mixtures, in the form of random or deliberate hybrids within a regional ecotype, to ensure that ample genetic diversity and vigor will be available for native species to respond to climate change and other stresses. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Use of natives and techniques in ecological restoration; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Bussell, J.D.; Hood, P.; Alacs, E.A.; Dixon, K.W.; Hobbs, R.J.; Krauss, S.L. 2006. Rapid genetic delineation of local provenance seed-collection zones for effective rehabilitation of an urban bushland remnant. Austral Ecology. 31, 2: 164-175.  
 
The rehabilitation of native plant communities in urban bushland remnants is an increasingly important activity requiring the collection of large amounts of seed. Best practice generally identifies that local seed are best, but how far does the local provenance extend? Using the DNA fingerprinting technique amplified fragment length polymorphism, we assessed genetic differentiation between potential seed source populations and the target population, Bold Park, a large and significant bushland remnant in Perth, Western Australia. For each of 15 species, analysis of molecular variance was used to partition genetic variation within and among populations. Genetic differentiation between Bold Park and potential seed source populations was assessed by non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination, and statistically by Fisher's exact tests. The partitioning of variation among populations (Phi(ST)) varied from 0.66 for Santalum acuminatum to 0.04 for Mesomelaena pseudostygia. For eight of 15 species, Bold Park plants were completely or largely non-overlapping with other populations in ordinations, suggesting genetic differentiation and a narrow provenance. Five species showed overlap between Bold Park and some other, but not all, populations sampled, with geographically closest populations generally undifferentiated. Only two species, Acanthocarpus preissii and Mesomeleana pseudostygia, showed little genetic differentiation between Bold Park and all other populations, suggesting a regional genetic provenance. These species can be classified into three broad provenance classes - narrow, local and regional - to help guide decisions about appropriate seed-collection zones for the rehabilitation of urban bushland remnants. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Cavers, S.; Navarro, C.; Lowe, A.J. 2003. A combination of molecular markers identifies evolutionarily significant units in Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae) in Costa Rica. Conservation Genetics. 4: 571-580.  
 
The necessity for conservation of the genetic component of biodiversity is now widely recognised. A broad genetic base is required to maintain evolutionary potential and the population erosion occurring in much of the world's forests threatens the genetic integrity of many tree species. Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) has been under severe pressure for generations and is now the focus of a study aimed at assessing the levels and distribution of genetic diversity in remaining populations. Ten Costa Rican populations were analysed using chloroplast and AFLP markers. The overall level of diversity was as expected for an outcrossing, long-lived, woody species (HT = 0.27). However, this concealed a deep divergence within the species, for chloroplast and AFLP (PhiCT = 0.83) markers. Populations were differentiated in two groups that exhibited contrasting habitat preferences and two ecotypes, wet and dry, were identified. Within the ecotypes, all but one population were fixed for a single chloroplast haplotype and within populations, total genomic diversity levels were low (HS= 0.03-0.13). Populations possessing the dry ecotype maintained significantly more diversity than those from wet regions. Within the wet ecotype group, pairwise genetic distance between populations fitted an isolation by distance model. The group was strongly subdivided and showed isolation by distance around the southern edge of the central mountain ranges. The genetic divergence of the two ecotypes, observed at both organellar and nuclear loci, identifies evolutionarily significant units that, taken together with previous studies of the species, provide a rational basis on which to build a conservation policy for the species. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Examples of ecotypes; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
CNPS. 2001. Guidelines For Landscaping To Protect Native Vegetation From Genetic Degradation.  
 
No abstract. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Doede, D.L. 2005. Genetic variation in broadleaf lupine (Lupinus latifolius) on the Mt. Hood National Forest and implications for seed collection and deployment. Native Plants Journal. 6, 1: 36-48.  
 
Analysis of a common-garden study of broadleaf lupine (Lupinus latifolius Lindl. ex J.G.Agardh ssp. latifolius [Fabaceae]) indicates that use of watershed delineations is better than use of plant association series for determining seed zones on the Mt Hood National Forest. Risk analysis further confirmed that only 4 seed zones are required, providing a reasonable compromise between managing costs and maintaining local adaptation. Overall, moderate amounts of genetic variation were found in 84 seed sources.Two principal components (PCs) summarized 58% of the variation in 24 measured traits, and variation in PC scores was significantly correlated with topographic, geographic, and climatic variables. Regression analyses showed that these variables accounted for 47% of the variation in the first PC and 34% of the variation in the second PC. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of assessing the risk of seed source transfer; Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Endler, J.; Mazer, S.J.; Williams, M.; Sandoval, C.P.; Ferren, W. No Date. Problems Associated with the Introduction of Non-native Genotypes on NRS Reserves.  
 
The reason these guidelines have to be made is the widespread practice of assuming that all individuals in a class are identical. This is entirely inappropriate in biology because a fundamental property of populations of plants, animals, and microorganisms is extensive variation among individuals. This variation is found at all biological scales from DNA sequences up to physiological, morphological, behavioral and other traits. Virtually all of this variation has a genetic component, so we will refer to this variation as genetic variation, and the variants as genotypes. Extensive documentation of genetic variation in natural and artificial populations can be found in textbooks of population genetics, quantitative genetics, conservation genetics and conservation biology. The burgeoning field of individual-based models and approaches in Ecology is another indication of the widespread acceptance of the importance of variation. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Erickson, B.; Navarrette-Tindall, N.E. 2004. Missouri Native Ecotype Program: Increasing Local-Source Native Seed. Natural Areas Journal. 24, 1: 15-22.  
 
Following settlement, Missouri lost over 99.4% of its original natural tallgrass ecosystem to human development and agriculture, resulting in the rapid decrease of most grassland wildlife species. Loss of diversity became an increasing concern of resident biologists and the agencies entrusted with the care and protection of the Missouri natural heritage. Many prairie restoration and natural area enhancement projects were possible but native seed from local sources was in short supply. A cooperative task force from several agencies initiated a program that would bridge the gap between the volume of seed produced and the volume of seed needed for conservation area management and broad-scale restoration efforts. Ecozones within state boundaries were defined based on climate and soil similarities. The primary goal of the Missouri Native Ecotype Program was to create a commercially available seed supply comprised of several native plant species developed from seed of local origin to fill the needs of conservation area managers and restorationists. By autumn 2004, the program will have 33 species developed as ecotypes from two predominantly prairie ecozones. In its sixth year, the program is providing technical and marketing assistance to ecotype seed producers, FFA chapters, and nursery owners throughout the state by offering hands-on workshops and printed materials, an interactive website, and one-on-one training. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Erickson, V.J.; Mandel, N.L.; Sorensen, F.C. 2004. Landscape patterns of phenotypic variation and population structuring in a selfing grass, Elymus glaucus (blue wildrye). Canadian Journal of Botany. 82, 12: 1776-1790.  
 
Source-related phenotypic variance was investigated in a common garden study of populations of Elymus glaucus Buckley (blue wildrye) from the Blue Mountain Ecological Province of northeastern Oregon and adjoining Washington. The primary objective of this study was to assess geographic patterns of potentially adaptive differentiation in this self-fertile allotetraploid grass, and use this information to develop a framework for guiding seed movement and preserving adaptive patterns of genetic variation in ongoing restoration work. Progeny of 188 families were grown for 3 years under two moisture treatments and measured for a wide range of traits involving growth, morphology, fecundity, and phenology. Variation among seed sources was analyzed in relation to physiographic and climatic trends, and to various spatial stratifications such as ecoregions, watersheds, edaphic classifications, etc. Principal component (PC) analysis extracted four primary PCs that together accounted for 67% of the variance in measured traits. Regression and cluster analyses revealed predominantly ecotypic or stepped-clinal distribution of genetic variation. Three distinct geographic groups of locations accounted for over 84% of the variation in PC-1 and PC-2 scores; group differences were best described by longitude and ecoregion. Clinal variation in PC-3 and PC-4 scores was present in the largest geographic group. Four geographic subdivisions were proposed for delimiting E. glaucus seed transfer in the Blue Mountains 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Falk, D.A. 1991. Joining Biological and Economic Models for Conserving Plant Genetic Diversity. In: Falk, D.A.; Holsinger, K.E., editors. Oxford University Press. New York.  
 
In seeking to translate the lessons of ecology and evolutionary biology into conservation strategy, we thus encounter a set of questions, some biological and some economic. This unholy union of population biology and microeconomics provides the intellectual framework for this chapter; the objective, howerver, is to move beyond theory as expeditiously as possible, and to provide guidance for the informed practice of endangered species conservation. To this end, the last section of this chapter is devoted to recommendations for protecting and managing rare plants within a framework of efficient allocation of conservation resources. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Fenster, C.B.; Dudash, M.R. 1994. Genetic considerations for plant population restoration and conservation. In: Bowles, M.L.; Whelan C.J., editors. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.  
 
No abstract. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of basic population genetics principles; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Friar, E.A.; Ladoux, T.; Roalson, E.H.; Robichaux, R.H. 2000. Microsatellite analysis of a population crash and bottleneck in the Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp sandwicense (Asteraceae), and its implications for reintroduction. Molecular Ecology. 9, 12: 2027-2034.  
 
The Mauna Kea silversword, Agyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense, has experienced both a severe population crash associated with an increase in alien ungulate populations on Mauna Kea, and a population bottleneck associated with reintroduction. In this paper, we address the genetic consequences of both demographic events using eight microsatellite loci. The population crash was not accompanied by a significant reduction in number of alleles or heterozygosity. However, the population bottleneck was accompanied by significant reductions in observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, and expected heterozygosity, though not in observed heterozygosity. The effective size of the population bottleneck was calculated using both observed heterozygosities and allele frequency variances. Both methods corroborated the historical census size of the population bottleneck of at most three individuals. The results suggest that: (i) small populations, even those that result from severe reductions in historical population size and extent, are not necessarily genetically depauperate; and (ii) species reintroduction plans need to be conceived and implemented carefully, with due consideration to the genetic impact of sampling for reintroduction. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Gordon, D.R. 1994. Translocation of species into conservation areas: A key for natural resource managers. Natural Areas Journal. 14, 1: 31-37.  
 
Few guidelines address the considerations and criteria necessary for judging the appropriateness of translocating species onto designated conservation areas. This paper presents a dichotomous key that will assist natural resource decision-makers in assessing the biological and genetic needs and impacts of introducing, reintroducing, or augmenting species. I argue that each translocation decision should be well documented prior to action in a format that includes current and proposed site management information, consideration of the factors addressed in the key, and monitoring of translocated individuals or populations. Although translocation should not be viewed as an alternative to in situ conservation of species, this tactic may be necessary for conservation of species or processes in natural areas. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Gordon, D.R.; Rice, K.J. 1998. Patterns of differentiation in wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana): implications for restoration efforts. Restoration Ecology. 6: 166-174.  
 
Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass) is increasingly being planted in restoration projects across the southeastern coastal plain, with little focus on genetic differences among populations across the region. Local and regional population differentiation for establishment and growth traits were examined in common garden and reciprocal transplant experiments. Seeds from up to 20 plants from each of seven populations were collected in northern and central Florida sites that encompassed gradients of soils, hydrology, and temperature. Reciprocal seed transplants using three of the common garden populations were conducted in two consecutive years. In the common garden, significant population differences were seen in seed weight, seedling emergence and survival, tiller height, number of tillers, the relationship between tiller number and tiller height, and flowering. Variation among maternal families was seen in tiller number and in the relationship between tiller number and tiller height. The reciprocal transplant study did not detect either local adaptation to sites of origin or consistent superiority of one source population or planting site in seedling establishment. These results suggest that the probability of seedling establishment is primarily dependent on environmental conditions rather than genetic differences. Genetic variation for traits related to fitness (e.g., tiller number) may be retained within populations because phenotypically plastic growth responses of seedlings to environmental variation buffer genetic variation against the action of selection. But despite the lack of evidence for genetic influences on initial establishment in wiregrass, our common garden study suggests genetic differences among populations. This result, when combined with previous results indicating local adaptation in later life stages of wiregrass, suggests that restoration efforts involving this species should use local seed sources from sites with similar soil and hydrological conditions. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Examples of genetic and environmental interactions; Examples of phenotypic plasticity; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Gravuer, K.; von Wettberg, E.; Schmitt, J. 2005. Population differentiation and genetic variation inform translocation decisions for Liatris scariosa var. novae-angliae, a rare New England grassland perennial. Biological Conservation. 124, 2: 155-167.  
 
Augmentation of small rare species populations is sometimes suggested on genetic grounds. However, outbreeding depression via dilution of local adaptation or break-up of genomic coadaptation may occur. These effects depend on the causes of population divergence. Here, we compare genetic measures of population divergence in Liatris scariosa var. novae-angliae, a rare New England perennial. We measured G(ST), neutral marker subdivision, and Q(ST), quantitative subdivision of propagule and juvenile plant traits. G(ST) was relatively high. Q(ST) for leaf shape exceeded G(ST), indicating local adaptation, while Q(ST) for other traits fell within or below the G(ST) range. Local adaptation appears low for juvenile traits, although the high G(ST) cautions against translocation because of potential coadaptation. If translocation is still required, however, donor populations should contain high quantitative genetic diversity. We assess population size and allozyme diversity as predictors of quantitative genetic variation, but find these poor proxies for direct measurement. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Theoretical discussion of outbreeding depression; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Gustafson, D.J.; Gibson, D.J.; Nickrent, D.L. 2004. Competitive relationships of Andropogon gerardii (Big Bluestem) from remnant and restored native populations and select cultivated varieties. Functional Ecology. 18: 451-457.  
 
1. Although genetic differentiation among plant populations is well known, its relevance for preserving the integrity of native ecosystems has received little attention. In a series of competition experiments with Andropogon gerardii Vitman, a dominant species of the North American Tallgrass Prairie, plant performance was related to seed provenance and restoration activities. 2. Glasshouse experiments showed plant performance to be a function of seed source. Differential target plant performance relative to competitor identity was observed when plant performance was assessed across a range of competitor densities. Local and non-local plants were larger when competing against non-local plants relative to the local and cultivar plants, while cultivar plants were consistently larger than local and non-local plants regardless of competitor identity or density. The consistency of cultivar performance could reflect directional selection during cultivar development for consistently high fecundity, vigorous vegetative growth and resistance to pathogens. 3. In a field experiment, non-local plants were half the size of local and cultivar plants, supporting recognition of seed provenances of A. gerardii based on differences in plant performance among source populations observed in the glasshouse study, and previous genetic analyses of the same populations. 4. This study establishes that seed provenance and restoration activities influence the competitive ability of a dominant species which, in turn, may affect plant community structure and potential ecosystem function. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success; Comparison of cultivar and non-selected plant material;   
 

 
Gustafson, D.J.; Gibson, D.J.; Nickrent, D.L. 2005. Using local seeds in prairie restoration -- data support the paradigm. Native Plants Journal. 6, 1: 25-28.  
 
Choice among local, non-local, and cultivar seeds for restoring native ecosystems is not purely an academic question'it also has practical consequences. In this article we summarize a series of genetic and competition studies of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), and purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea) from remnant and restored Illinois (local) prairies, non-local remnant prairies, and 6 grass cultivars. We found genetic differences between local and non-local seed sources, that large populations do not necessarily have higher genetic diversity relative to small populations, and differences in plant performance could be related to seed source. Although obtaining large quantities of non-local and cultivar grass seeds may be affordable, available, and desirable given the amount of seeds required for prairie restoration, our research indicates genetic and plant performance differences between local and non-local seed sources in all 3 species. Such differences can affect both the short- and long-term success of restoration activities. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success; Comparison of cultivar and non-selected plant material;   
 

 
Gustafson, D.J.; Gibson, D.J.; Nickrent, D.L. 2004. Conservation genetics of two co-dominant grass species in an endangered grassland ecosystem. Journal of Applied Ecology. 41, 2: 389-397.  
 
1. Global habitat fragmentation and loss of undisturbed grasslands has led to the use of non-local seed and cultivars in restoration. There is concern that these sources may be genetically depauperate and their introduction may lead to loss of unique local genotypes. Within this context we considered the issue with regard to the once widespread but now highly fragmented North American tallgrass prairie. 2. We characterized the genetic diversity and genetic relationships of the co-dominant species in this system, big bluestem Andropogon gerardii and Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans, from seven remnant and six restored local tallgrass prairies, a non-local remnant prairie, and five cultivated varieties. 3. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of these grasses showed that genetic diversity was mostly retained within rather than among populations, and did not differ among restored or remnant populations or cultivars. 4. Genetic diversity estimates were not correlated with the area of the grassland, nor was there a clear association between diversity and species abundance. All of the restored grasslands in this study were established with seed from at least two local populations and were as genetically diverse as remnant sites. 5. Principal components analysis of RAPD band frequencies showed that the local remnant and restored populations were genetically different from the non-local remnant grasslands and were consistently different to the cultivars. The genetic relationships among local remnant and restored populations reflected biogeography and human activities. 6. Synthesis and applications. Restoration practitioners have often assumed that small populations are genetically depauperate and therefore the need for multiple seed sources to increase genetic diversity outweighs concerns over potential genetic differences among widespread species. Our research, however, indicates that genetic diversity is much less of an issue in these perennial outcrossing autopolyploid grasses than genetic differences among local and non-local or cultivar seed sources. Combining these results with our previous research, indicating differences in plant performance as a function of the source population, suggests that genetic differences and ecological performance among local and non-local seed sources are more of a concern than genetic diversity. Translocating non-local seed in order to increase diversity, or using cultivars, is likely to alter the genetic structure of remnant populations and potentially influence the associated community and affect ecosystem structure and function in unforeseen ways. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success; Comparison of cultivar and non-selected plant material; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Hamilton, N.R.S. 2001. Is local provenance important in habitat creation? A reply. Journal of Applied Ecology. 38, 6: 1374-1376.  
 
1. Wilkinson (2001) argues that we cannot assume that hybrids between local and alien genotypes will have low fitness, and therefore, as low hybrid fitness has been presented as justification for using only locally provenanced material in habitat restoration schemes. provenance is not important. 2. His observations on fitness are important, correct and deserve wider recognition. 3. Nevertheless, I dispute his conclusion about the importance of provenance, for two main reasons. One is that his argument is based on questionable objectives for biodiversity conservation. The second is that, even if we accept these underlying objectives, the fitness of hybrids is only one of numerous relevant issues. 4. Use of locally provenanced seed should be standard practice, except where the introduction of non-local genotypes is specifically justified in terms of conservation genetics. 
 
Included in Topics:  Theoretical discussion of local adaptation; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Havens, K. 1998. The Genetics of Plant Restoration, An Overview and a Surprise. Restoration & Management Notes. 16, 1: 68-72.  
 
This paper discusses the basis for important genetic considerations in ecological restoration and states that, for some species, inbreeding in isolated populations may be more dangerous than bringing in new genes from distant populations. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the negative effects of inbreeding depression; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Helenurm, K. 1998. Outplanting and differential source population success in Lupinus guadalupensis. Conservation Biology. 12, 1: 118-127.  
 
The choice of appropriate source populations is crucial for the success of outplanting attempts, but this choice is often based on assumptions regarding patterns of adaptation and distribution of genetic variability in natural populations. Although local adaptation is often assumed to exist, few data exist to support this model on smaller geographic scales, particularly in rare plant species. dry study investigated the pattern of adaptation in populations of an annual, island endemic plant, Lupinus guadalupensis, on San Clemente Island California. A reciprocal transplant experiment with three populations provided no evidence for local adaptation, but two source populations performed significantly better than the other at all sites. Desiccation and herbivory are the major factors causing mortality and reducing fruit production. The young rosettes are the most vulnerable life-cycle stage Differences among natural population sites in vegetation community, dominant species, soil type, and parent material did not affect populations of L. guadalupensis; significant differences were not observed in either total fruit production or in the majority of fitness components Success of outplanting into three introduction sites varied from the death of all plants before flowering or before fruits ripened to fruit production exceeding that at natural population sites. The results suggest that large populations are better sources of seeds for outplanting in L. guadalupensis and that outplanting is most successful in sites where plants are least subject to desiccation. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of broad adaptation; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
Holderegger, R.; Kamm, U.; Gugerli, F. 2006. Adaptive vs. neutral genetic diversity: implications for landscape genetics. Landscape Ecology. 21, 6: 797-807.  
 
Genetic diversity is important for the maintenance of the viability and the evolutionary or adaptive potential of populations and species. However, there are two principal types of genetic diversity: adaptive and neutral - a fact widely neglected by non-specialists. We introduce these two types of genetic diversity and critically point to their potential uses and misuses in population or landscape genetic studies. First, most molecular-genetic laboratory techniques analyse neutral genetic variation. This means that the gene variants detected do not have any direct effect on fitness. This type of genetic variation is thus selectively neutral and tells us nothing about the adaptive or evolutionary potential of a population or a species. Nevertheless, neutral genetic markers have great potential for investigating processes such as gene flow, migration or dispersal. Hence, they allow us to empirically test the functional relevance of spatial indices such as connectivity used in landscape ecology. Second, adaptive genetic variation, i.e. genetic variation under natural selection, is analysed in quantitative genetic experiments under controlled and uniform environmental conditions. Unfortunately, the genetic variation (i.e. heritability) and population differentiation at quantitative, adaptive traits is not directly linked with neutral genetic diversity or differentiation. Thus, neutral genetic data cannot serve as a surrogate of adaptive genetic data. In summary, neutral genetic diversity is well suited for the study of processes within landscapes such as gene flow, while the evolutionary or adaptive potential of populations or species has to be assessed in quantitative genetic experiments. Landscape ecologists have to mind these differences between neutral and adaptive genetic variation when interpreting the results of landscape genetic studies. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Houseal, G.; Smith, D. 2000. Source-Identified Seed: The Iowa Roadside Experience. Ecological Restoration. 18, 3: 173-184.  
 
This article discusses the Iowa Ecotype Project which aims to increase the availability of seeds for roadside prairie reconstruction. It outline goals of the project, phases of the project, and use of a regional approach to collect and propagate germplasm for roadside prairie reconstructions. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Use of natives and techniques in ecological restoration; Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Iwata, H.; Kamijo, T.; Tsumura, Y. 2006. Assessment of genetic diversity of native species in Izu Islands for a discriminate choice of source populations: Implications for revegetation of volcanically devastated sites. Conservation Genetics. 7, 3: 399-413.  
 
In using native species for revegetation, it is necessary choose source populations carefully to reduce the risk of planting suboptimal germplasm. To make preliminary recommendations for native species to use in the revegetation of a volcanically devastated area on Miyake Is., Japan, we investigated the genetic variation of Alnus sieboldiana, Miscanthus sinensis ssp. condensatus, and Polygonum cuspidatum var. terminalis in the Izu Islands and on the Izu Peninsula based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence variations and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). The amount and pattern of differentiation differ between organelle and nuclear markers, suggesting the necessity of evaluation based on both types of markers. Within-population diversity did not vary among populations, suggesting that it does not need to be considered in the choice of a source population. The pattern and degree of differentiation varied among species, and geographical proximity did not necessarily accord with genetic similarity, suggesting that the site of an appropriate source population varies among species and should be determined empirically rather than by assuming that close proximity predicts genetic similarity. The Izu Peninsula populations deviated from the island populations in all species. Comparison of cpDNA sequences with those of related species indicates the possibility of hybridization with related species on the Izu Peninsula, suggesting that seeds collected from populations where related species live sympatrically should not be used for revegetation. These findings indicate the need to assess the genetic diversity empirically by using organelle and nuclear markers to avoid unintended consequences of genetic mixing associated with revegetation. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Johnson, G.R.; Sorensen, F.C.; St Clair, J.B.; Croon, R.C. 2004. Pacific Northwest Forest Tree Seed Zones: A Template for Native Plants? Native Plants Journal. 5, 2: 131-140. 
 
Seed movement guidelines for restoration activities are lacking for most native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The forestry community has decades of experience in establishing seed zones and seed movement guidelines that may be of value to restoration managers. We review the history of seed zone development in forest trees, with emphasis on the Pacific Northwest, and make some suggestions concerning seed transfer guidelines for other native plants. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of basic population genetics principles; Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Jones, A.T.; Hayes, M.J. 1999. Increasing floristic diversity in grassland: the effects of management regime and provenance on species introduction. Biological Conservation. 87, 3: 381-390.  
 
Concerns over recent losses of floristic diversity in British grasslands have led to a new impetus to recreate species-rich pastures. However, such programmes often require the active introduction of wildflower seed or plants to achieve rapid increases in diversity. Methods need to be developed for the successful establishment of desirable species into existing species-poor swards and the implications of using different seed provenances need to be considered. The establishment of five common forb species were compared, each represented by two provenances, sown into a range of swards each receiving different management regimes. For each species, one provenance was collected locally and the other was of non-local, commercially-obtained, provenance. Two years after sowing, the unfertilised sward management with two cuts per year followed by aftermath grazing showed the greatest seedling establishment; that with cutting alone showed the least, even less than the management receiving fertiliser inputs and continuous grazing. Seedling survivorship was related more to sward management than to fine-scale sward composition. Within some species there were significant differences in survival between provenances. The importance of sward management and species provenance in grassland restoration programmes are discussed. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
Jones, A.T.; Hayes, M.J.; Sackville Hamilton, N.R. 2001. The effect of provenance on the performance of Crataegus monogyna in hedges. Journal of Applied Ecology. 38, 5: 952-962.  
 
1. Grants for wildlife enhancement in the British Isles have supported the widespread planting of new hedges along field margins. However, much of the planted material, particularly of hawthorn Crataegus monogyna, has been obtained from the continental mainland of Europe. There is a need to assess the implications of this practice for hedgerow performance and for the conservation of indigenous genetic variation. 2. One local ecotype and eight commercial provenances (four British and four continental European) of hawthorn were planted in an experimental hedge at both an exposed upland site and a sheltered lowland site. Sections of hedge were planted with or without fencing and with or without mulching in all combinations. Growth and thorniness were assessed over 3 years, and phenology and disease over 2 years. 3. At both sites, the most locally obtained provenance had the latest bud-burst, exhibited the least severe symptoms of mildew and was the most thorny. It also showed the greatest height increment at the upland site, but was relatively slow-growing at the lowland site. 4. An imported Hungarian provenance had early bud-burst, showed a high growth rate and suffered the most severe mildew. A commercially obtained British native provenance was aberrant in its extremely early bud-burst and other attributes comparable with the Hungarian provenance, indicating the possibility of misidentification at some stage of production or supply. 5. In the absence of fencing, at the upland site hawthorn mortality was 100% compared with only 3% at the lowland site. In fenced plots there was c 320% greater growth when mulching was used. 6. The results suggest that for greater establishment success and hence cost benefits in hedge planting, as well as for greater environmental benefits, there should be closer matching of hawthorn provenance to the planting site. The use of commercial material has demonstrated that locally provenanced material can be superior to any commercially available material, and that the current state of the commercial sector is insufficient to enforce the necessary controls over provenance of material used for hedge renovation. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success; Comparison of cultivar and non-selected plant material;   
 

 
Jones, T.A. 2005. Genetic principles and the use of native seeds -- just the FAQs, please, just the FAQs. Native Plants Journal. 6, 1: 14-24.  
 
To make intelligent choices in the marketplace, native seed customers should have a working understanding of genetic principles and terminology as they apply to self-pollinated, cross-pollinated, and apomictic plant materials. Customers should understand the genetic implications of a species' breeding system, the various approaches used to decide what should be planted where, the risk of inbreeding or outbreeding depression, the meaning of commonly misunderstood terms such as "ecotype" and "cultivar," and the role of hybridization and artificial selection in plant materials development. Plant material selection involves consideration of geographic (such as ecoregion, precipitation, winter hardiness, soil type), genetic (molecular markers), and adaptation (field testing) data. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of basic population genetics principles; Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Characteristics of cultivars; Use of natives and techniques in ecological restoration; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Jones, T.A.; Johnson, D.A. 1998. Invited Synthesis: Integrating Genetic Concepts into Planning Rangeland Seedings. Journal of Range Management. 51, 6: 594-606.  
 
Choice of plant materials is a fundamental component of any rangeland rehabilitation, reclamation, or restoration project. We describe here an integrated approach for such decision-making. This approach considers site potential, desired landscape, seeding objectives, conflicting land use philosophies, appropriate plant materials, weed invasion, community seral status, and economic limitations. Technical limitations are considered in generating a plan that has the greatest potential for success. Determining whether native-site plant material is best depends on objectives, heterogeneity of the site's environment, uniqueness of the site, plant population size, and biotic or abiotic site disturbance. Fixation of alien genes into a population is referred to both as introgression, which may ensure maintenance of genetic variation critical for adaptation to a changing environment, and genetic pollution, with the potential for swamping native cross-pollinating annual or short-lived perennial gene pools. Precautionary procedures during seed increase minimize genetic shift, which may be reversible, but genetic drift could result in permanent loss of desirable genes. A variety of germplasm classes, ranging from site-specific to widely adapted and varying in degrees of heterozygosity and heterogeneity should be considered. Material originating from multiple sites may increase the opportunity for natural selection. An understanding of the magnitude and nature of a species' genetic variation, its relationship to ecological adaptation, and its interaction with other ecosystem components contribute to informed decision-making. Though often unavailable, experience is the best guide for predicting performance of materials on non-native sites. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of basic population genetics principles; Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Characteristics of cultivars; Use of natives and techniques in ecological restoration; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Knapp, E.E.; Dyer, A.R. 1997. When do genetic considerations require special approaches to ecological restoration?. In: Fiedler, P.L.; Kareiva, P.M., editors. Chapman and Hall. New York.  
 
In this chapter, we explore the implications of population differentiation and local adaptation to ecological restoration and present some strategies for reintroducing genetically appropriate populations. We then discuss the consequences of non-local introductions on existing native populations, and conclude by describing some community-level genetic processes that may require consideration when attempting restoration. Includes a section on "agricultural production of plant materials for restoration: implications for adaptation". 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of basic population genetics principles; Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Examples of gene flow between introduced and native populations; Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Use of natives and techniques in ecological restoration; Comparison of cultivar and non-selected plant material; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Knapp, E.E.; Rice, K.J. 1994. Starting from Seed: Genetic Issues in Using Native Grasses for Restoration. Restoration & Management Notes. 12, 1: 40-45.  
 
This paper discusses, in a broader sense, some genetic issues that may be useful to consider when collecting and utilizing native grasses for restoration. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of basic population genetics principles; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Knapp, E.E.; Rice, K.J. Ecotypes of Native Species: How Local is Local in Restoration Plantings?. 2. In: Lovich, J.E.; Randall, J.; Kelly, M.D., editors.  
 
From Conclusions: Populations of native species growing in different environments and separate regions are often genetically distinct. These genetic differences should be considered when source material of native species is obtained for restoration and revegetation. We investigated patterns of genetic variation for different types of traits among populations of a popularly planted native grass (Nassella pulchra), and determined the extent to which local populations of Elymus glaucus, and N. pulchra are better adapted than non local populations. We found strong genetic differences among populations of N. pulchra for both isozyme markers and quantitative traits, but the patterns of genetic differentiation visualized by the two methods were not similar. Thus, management recommendations and seed transfer guidelines should not be based on data for only one type of trait. In addition, patterns of quantitative trait variation in N. pulchra were strongly correlated with climatic variation among sites, suggesting that it may be possible to obtain a rough match between seed sources and planting sites by using readily available climate zone data. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of ecotypes; Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Knapp, E.E.; Rice, K.J. 1998. Comparison of Isozymes and Quantitative Traits for Evaluating Patterns of Genetic Variation in Purple Needlegrass (Nassela pulchra). Conservation Biology. 12, 5: 1031-1041.  
 
Decimation of the California (U.S.A.) prairie has increased interest in the conservation and ecological restoration of grasslands composed of native perennial species. Widespread plantings are being attempted, and the potential for contaminating existing remnant populations with maladapted germplasm has led to concerns about the use of nonlocal seed sources. We evaluated regional patterns of isozyme and quantitative trait variation in the native perennial grass Nassella pulchra for the purpose of developing recommendations about the spatial scales over which seed can be translocated. Seed was collected from 10 remnant native populations. Progeny from all 10 populations were scored for isozyme variation with 11 stains, and progeny from 8 populations were planted in a common garden to evaluate variation for 11 quantitative (polygenic) traits. The correspondence between isozyme and quantitative trait variation and the relationships of both types of variation to geographic distance and climate were explored by Mantel test regressions. Populations were strongly differentiated for both isozymes and quantitative traits, but cluster analysis based on each type of data did not result in the same population groupings. This lack of congruence was further demonstrated by the nonsignificance of the regression of Hedrick's distances for isozymes on Mahalanobis distances for quantitative traits. Quantitative trait variation was strongly associated with climatic variables, whereas isozyme variation was not. This suggests that the relative importance of genetic drift and selection in shaping patterns of genetic differentiation may depend upon the type of trait evaluated. Quantitative traits are potentially better indicators of adaptation to regional and local environmental variation, and thus the usefulness of isozymes for making recommendations about the spatial scales over which seed of N. pulchra can be translocated may be limited. Unfortunately, obtaining data on patterns of quantitative trait variation is often time- and labor-intensive. The close association of quantitative trait variation with regional climatic variables indicates that an index based on readily obtainable climatic information might aid restorationists in making rapid decisions about appropriate spatial scales for translocating native grasses. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Krauss, S.L.; Koch, J.M. 2004. Rapid genetic delineation of provenance for plant community restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology. 41, 6: 1162-1173.  
 
1. Best practice in native plant community restoration and/or revegetation recognizes the importance of using material of local provenance. At the practical level, various guidelines exist but these have limitations. The challenge is to deliver accurate provenance information rapidly to the restoration industry. 2. We demonstrate a novel approach to the rapid delineation of genetic provenance by utilizing minimal sampling, the power and efficiency of the AFLP DNA fingerprinting technique and a multivariate spatial autocorrelation analysis for four species with high priority for minesite revegetation in south-west Western Australia. 3. A significantly positive genetic correlation was found between individuals in the smallest distance class for three species. Correlograms then stabilized, with no significant genetic correlation between individuals at any other distance class. A local genetic provenance distance was here defined as the distance where the correlogram goes from significant to non-significant, which was approximately 26 km, 20 km and 20 km for these three species. 4. In contrast, for the fourth species, no significant genetic correlation was seen at any distance class, suggesting a very broad genetic provenance (up to 100 km), although the possibility of significant structure below the smallest distance class used here (20 km) cannot be dismissed. 5. Whilst spatial autocorrelation has identified significant spatial genetic structure for 3 of 4 species assessed, a robust delineation of provenance distance, or patch size, is problematic because it is dependent on properties of sampling and analysis such as the scale of sampling and the choice of distance class size, especially when sample sizes are small. 6. Synthesis and applications. The determination of seed collection zones for revegetation projects is a complex problem. We demonstrate a new approach for the rapid delivery of genetic provenance delineation for native plant community restoration, and provide recommendations for seed collection zones for each of four species. This approach can be applied to other species and other areas. We discuss the limitations of the approach, and conclude that further research is required to assess an appropriate minimal sampling strategy that leads to a more robust delineation of provenance distance. We also note that revegetation programmes provide an opportunity to experimentally assess the biological significance of the local provenance as defined, through an assessment of the relative performance of plants sourced from within and beyond defined provenances. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Lesica, P.; Allendorf, F.W. 1999. Ecological genetics and restoration of plant communities: Mix or Match?. Restoration Ecology. 7: 42-50.  
 
We present a conceptual framework for choosing native plant material to be used in restoration projects on the basis of ecological genetics. We evaluate both the likelihood of rapid establishment of plants and the probability of long-term persistence of restored or later successional communities. In addition, we consider the possible harmful effects of restoration projects on nearby ecosystems and their native resident populations. Two attributes of the site to be restored play an important role in determining which genetic source will be most appropriate: (1) degree of disturbance and (2) size of the disturbance. Local plants or plants from environments that "match" the habitat to be restored are best suited to restore sites where degree of genotypes from different sources may provide the best strategy for restoring highly disturbed sites to which local plants are not adapted. Cultivars that have been modified by intential or inadvertent selection have serious drawbacks. Nevertheless, cultivars may be appropriate when the goal is rapid recovery of small sites that are highly disturbed 
 
Included in Topics:  Characteristics of cultivars; Use of natives and techniques in ecological restoration; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Longcore, T.; Mattoni, R.; Pratt, G.; Rich, C. On the Perils of Ecological Restoration: Lessons From the El Segundo Blue Butterfly. In: Keeley, J.E., editor.  
 
Land use planning and permitting in southern California increasingly relies on ecological restoration as mitigation for damage done to natural habitats by development projects. Many restoration attempts fail miserably, for a number of reasons. Three areas of concern for restoration projects are: 1) historical accuracy and completeness, 2) ecotype accuracy, and 3) type conversions. Using evidence from a restoration project for the El Segundo blue butterfly we will show the importance of historical accuracy in ecological restoration. Other examples from the El Segundo dunes will illustrate the vital importance of using local ecotypes in restoration projects. Finally, we will discuss the issues raised by type conversions and other questionable restoration practices, why they are allowed as mitigation, and their effect on regional conservation goals. 
 
Included in Topics:  Genetic considerations in multi-species interactions; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
McKay, J.K.; Christian, C.E.; Harrison, S.; Rice, K.J. 2005. "How Local Is Local?" A Review of Practical and Conceptual Issues in the Genetics of Restoration. Restoration Ecology. 13, 3: 432-440.  
 
In plant conservation, restoration (the augmentation or reestablishment of an extinct population or community) is a valuable tool to mitigate the loss of habitat. However, restoration efforts can result in the introduction of novel genes and genotypes into populations when plant materials used are not of local origin. This movement is potentially important because many plant species are subdivided into populations that are adapted to local environmental conditions. Here we focus on genetic concerns arising from ongoing restoration efforts, where often little is known about "How local is local?" (i.e., the geographic or environmental scale over which plant species are adapted). We review the major issues regarding gene flow and local adaptation in the restoration of natural plant populations. Finally, we offer some practical, commonsense guidelines for the consideration of genetic structure when restoring natural plant populations. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of basic population genetics principles; Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Examples of broad adaptation; Theoretical discussion of local adaptation; Theoretical discussion of hybridization; Theoretical discussion of outbreeding depression; Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Menges, E.S.; Dolan, R.W. 1998. Demographic Viability of Populations of Silene regia in Midwestern Prairies: Relationships with Fire Management, Genetic Variation, Geographic Location, Population Size and Isolation. Journal of Ecology. 86, 1: 63-78.  
 
1) We studied the demographic viability of populations of a long-lived iteroparous prairie perennial, Silene regia, in relation to management regimes, population sizes, geographical region (Ohio and Indiana vs. Missouri and Arkansas), degree of isolation and amount of genetic variation. Demographic data were collected from 16 populations for up to 7 years. 2) This species has high survivorship, slow growth, frequent flowering and episodic seedling recruitment. Matrix projection methods were used to summarize population performance with and without recruitment. Median finite rates of increase by population varied from 0.57 to 1.82 and from 0.44 to 0.99, respectively. 3) Populations with the highest rates of increase had been burned. Six of eight populations, for which stochastic modelling predicted persistence for 1000 years, included fire in their management. None of the five populations with predicted 100-year extinction probabilities of 100% was managed for conservation or burned. An intermediate group of three populations with at least 10% probability of extinction between 100 and 1000 years was not managed, but was none the less kept open by mowing and herbicide application. 4) Analysis of composite elasticities showed that growth and fecundity terms were higher for growing (vs. declining) populations and that growth elasticity was higher in burned than unburned populations. Lack of burning shifts the elasticity spectrum from that typical of open habitat herbs (higher growth and fecundity elasticities) to values usually found for closed habitat herbs (higher survival elasticities). 5) In multivariate analyses predicting finite rates of increase (with and without recruitment), fire management and region were the strongest predictors, followed by genetic variation, population size, isolation and interactions of population size and fire, and region and fire. Populations with the highest rates of increase were burned, eastern, more genetically diverse, larger and less isolated. Discrimination of populations with different extinction risks (three classes) was related mainly to fire, genetic variation and region. 6) Most of these conclusions support conservation biology predictions that population viability will be highest in larger, less-isolated, more genetically diverse populations. However, management and geographic trends have overriding roles affecting demographic viability. Habitat fragmentation and genetic depletion have the potential to threaten residual prairie populations of S. regia, but lack of fire management appears to be the primary short-term threat. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of how species characteristics (life history, mating system, distribution, seed banking) may affect patterns of genetic variation; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success;   
 

 
Meyer, S.E.; Monsen, S.B. Genetic Considerations in propagating native shrubs, forbs, and grasses from seed. In: Landis, T.D., editor. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 47-54.  
 
Germination and emergence studies with native species important for wildland restoration have demonstrated major genetic variation in seed and seedling traits. Habitat correlated differences between ecotypes have been documented for many species. Large between-plant differences within populations also appear to be the norm based on recent studies. Nursery propagators need to consider this variation in both collection and propagation procedures, so that outplanted populations will represent adapted ecotypes with a full range of within-population variation. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Examples of ecotypes; Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Millar, C.I.; Libby, W.J. 1989. Disneyland or native ecosystem: genetics and the restorationist. Restoration & Management Notes. 7: 18-24.  
 
No abstract. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Montalvo, A.; Rice, S.L.W.; Cory, S.L.B.C.; Handel, S.N.; Nabhan, G.P.; Primack, R.; Robichaux, R.H. 1997. Restoration biology : a population biology perspective. Restoration Ecology. 5, 4: 277-290.  
 
A major goal of population biologists involved in restoration work is to restore populations to a level that will allow them to persist over the long term within a dynamic landscape and include the ability to undergo adaptive evolutionary change. We discuss five research areas of particular importance to restoration biology that offer potentially unique opportunities to couple basic research with the practical needs of restorationists. The five research areas are: (1) the influence of numbers of individuals and genetic variation in the initial population on population colonization, establishment, growth, and evolutionary potential; (2) the role of local adaptation and life history traits in the success of restored populations; (3) the influence of the spatial arrangement of landscape elements on metapopulation dynamics and population processes such as migration; (4) the effects of genetic drift, gene flow, and selection on population persistence within an often accelerated, successional time frame; and (5) the influence of interspecific interactions on population dynamics and community development. We also provide a sample of practical problems faced by practitioners, each of which encompasses one or more of the research areas discussed, and that may be solved by addressing fundamental research questions. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of how species characteristics (life history, mating system, distribution, seed banking) may affect patterns of genetic variation; Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Montalvo, A.M.; Ellstrand, N.C. 2000. Transplantation of the Subshrub Lotus scoparius: Testing the Home-Site Advantage Hypothesis. Conservation Biology. 14, 4: 1034-1045.  
 
The long-term success of restored populations may be jeopardized by the collection locality of transplants if they are ill matched to their new environment. The home-site advantage hypothesis predicts that the relative success of introduced populations will decrease as their genetic and environmental distance to the local native population increases. We evaluated this hypothesis for a geographically variable shrub, Lotus scoparius, in southern Californian coastal sage scrub by planting two common-garden experiments with seedlings from 12 source populations. The common-garden sites differed in environment and were each home to different source populations of the two taxonomic varieties, L. s. var. scoparius or L. s. var. brevialatus. We used allozyme data from each source population to calculate genetic distances between populations, and a combination of climatic data and soil traits to calculate environmental distances. At the more mesic, coastal common garden, cumulative fitness of transplants (survival x flower production) was inversely related to genetic distance between source and resident populations. At the more xeric, inland common garden, cumulative fitness (survival x size) decreased significantly with both genetic and environmental distance after one taxonomic variety was excluded from analyses. Geographic distance was only weakly correlated with genetic distance and had little value in predicting cumulative fitness of transplants. Our data support the home-site advantage hypothesis and the idea that mis-matching source populations of these genetically differentiated seed sources may result in lowered success of restored or constructed populations. The genetic and environmental similarities of source populations should be considered when source materials are chosen for transplantation. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
Morgenstern, E.K. 1996. Geographic Variation in Forest Trees: Genetic Basis and Application of Knowledge in Silviculture. Vancouver: UBC Press.  
 
Geographic variation within tree species is one of the basic issues facing foresters, biologists, and others who work with trees. Genetic differences among and within populations of these trees become important considerations when forests are regenerated artificially by seeding and planting, and when new species are introduced in forestry, agroforestry, or for ornamental and landscape purposes. This is the first book to examine this subject from a world-wide perspective. Following a historical review, the author discusses population genetic theory and genetic systems of tree species and how these species interact with environments in the major climatic regions of the world. He then demonstrates how this knowledge is used to guide seed zoning and seed transfer in silviculture, basing much of his discussion on models developed in Scandinavia and North America. In the final chapter, the author addresses the issue of genetic conservation'a subject of great concern in the face of accelerated forest destruction, industrial pollution, and climactic change. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of basic population genetics principles; Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Examples of how species characteristics (life history, mating system, distribution, seed banking) may affect patterns of genetic variation; Global climate change and genetic implications for ecological restoration; Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Moritz, C. 1999. Conservation Units and Translocations: Strategies for Conserving Evolutionary Processes. Hereditas. 130, 3: 217-228.  
 
The setting of conservation priorities within species requires explicit goals and identification of the appropriate targets for conservation. I suggest that the conservation goal should be to conserve ecological and evolutionary processes, rather than to preserve specific phenotypic variants--the products of those processes. From this perspective, we should seek to conserve historically isolated, and thus independently evolving, sets of populations (i.e., Evolutionarily Significant Units, ESU). This can require manipulation of the component Management Units (MUs), some of which may be phenotypically distinct. Here I explore the application of this approach to the design of translocations for conservation management. A process-oriented approach suggests that individuals should not be translocated between ESUs, but under some circumstances it is appropriate to mix individuals from different MUs within an ESU. These circumstances include augmentation of remnant populations that are showing signs of inbreeding depression or increased fragmentation and the use of mixed stocks for reintroductions into modified or changing environments or for introductions into novel environments. These actions are consistent with the goal of maintaining processes, but the extent to which differences in adaptation or coadaptation constrain the viability of populations subject to translocation needs further exploration. Both theory and limited experimental evidence suggests that these constraints can be overcome if sufficient genetic variation is present and evolutionary processes can operate without substantially reducing population viability. One remaining question is the extent to which genetic coadaptation, and the resulting outbreeding depression, develops along environmental gradients and how this compares to the build-up of genetic incompatibility between historically isolated populations. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Examples of the negative effects of inbreeding depression; Examples of outbreeding depression (hybrid breakdown); Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success;   
 

 
Newman, D.; Pilson, D. 1997. Increased probability of extinction due to decreased genetic effective population size: experimental populations of Clarkia pulchella. Evolution. 51: 354-362.  
 
We established replicated experimental populations of the annual plant Clarkia pulchella to evaluate the existence of a causal relationship between loss of genetic variation and population survival probability. Two treatments differing in the relatedness of the founders, and thus in the genetic effective population size (Ne), were maintained as isolated populations in a natural environment. After three generations, the low Ne treatment had significantly lower germination and survival rates than did the high Ne treatment. These lower germination and survival rates led to decreased mean fitness in the low Ne populations: estimated mean fitness in the low Ne populations was only 21% of the estimated mean fitness in the high Ne populations. This inbreeding depression led to a reduction in population survival: at the conclusion of the experiment, 75% of the high Ne populations were still extant, whereas only 31% of the low Ne populations had survived. Decreased genetic effective population size, which leads to both inbreeding and the loss of alleles by genetic drift, increased the probability of population extinction over that expected from demographic and environmental stochasticity alone. This demonstrates that the genetic effective population size can strongly affect the probability of population persistence. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Examples of the negative effects of inbreeding depression; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success;   
 

 
Proffitt, C.E.; Chiasson, R.L.; Owens, A.B.; Edwards, K.R.; Travis, S.E. 2005. Spartina alterniflora genotype influences facilitation and suppression of high marsh species colonizing an early successional salt marsh. Journal of Ecology. 93, 2: 404-416.  
 
1. Genetically based phenotypic and ecotypic variation in a dominant plant species can influence ecological functions and patterns of recruitment by other species in plant communities. However, the nature and degree of importance of genotypic differences is poorly understood in most systems. 2. The dominant salt marsh species, Spartina alterniflora, is known to induce facilitative and competitive effects in different plant species, and the outcomes of interactions can be affected by nutrients and flooding stress. Clonal genotypes, which maintained their different plant architecture phenotypes throughout 31 months of a field experiment, underwent considerable genet-specific senescence in their centres over the last 12 months. 3. Different clonal genotypes and different locations (robust edges vs. senescent centres) permitted significantly different levels of light penetration of the canopy (14.8-77.6%), thus establishing spatial heterogeneity for this important environmental factor. 4. S. alterniflora clonal genotype influenced the degree of suppression of the previously dominant Salicornia bigelovii as well as facilitation of recruitment and growth by other plant species. Aster subulatus and Atriplex patula performed better in Spartina clone centres, and experienced reduced growth in Salicornia-dominated areas. 5. Four other high marsh species (Borrichia frutescens, Aster tenuifolius, Iva frutescens and Limonium carolinianum) colonized only into Spartina clones but not into the Salicornia-dominated area. 6. These results suggest that differences in clone size, centre senescence, stem density, height, total stem length and biomass in different genotypes of a dominant marsh plant species can influence recruitment and growth of other plant species. The spatial pattern of habitat heterogeneity is, at least in part, dependent on the genotypic diversity, and possibly the genetic diversity, of such foundation species. 7. We hypothesize that as genotypic diversity increases in populations of a dominant plant species like S. alterniflora, the number and diversity of interactions with other species will increase as well. 
 
Included in Topics:  Genetic considerations in multi-species interactions; Examples of ecotypes; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
Rehfeldt, G.E. 1991. A model of genetic variation for Pinus ponderosa in the Inland Northwest(U. S. A.): applications in gene resource management. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21, 10: 1491-1500.  
 
Models were developed to describe genetic variation among 201 seedling populations of Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa in the Inland Northwest of the United States. Common-garden studies provided three variables that reflected growth and development in field environments and three principal components of six variables that reflected patterns of shoot elongation. Regression models were developed for describing genetic variation across the landscape. Using functions of latitude, longitude, and elevation as descriptors, these models produced values of R2 that were as large as 0.66, while averaging 0.39. The models described genetic variation as occurring along relatively steep elevational clines and gentle geographic (i.e., latitudinal and longitudinal) clines. An exercise at validating the models with independent data supported their veracity. Predictions made by the models are applied to limiting seed transfer, designing breeding zones, planning gene conservation programs, interpreting phenotypic variation, and predicting the effects of environmental change on the adaptedness of populations. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Reusch, T.B.H.; Ehlers, A.; Hammerli, A.; Worm, B. 2005. Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102, 2: 2826-2831.  
 
Contemporary climate change is characterized both by increasing mean temperature and increasing climate variability such as heat waves, storms, and floods. How populations and communities cope with such climatic extremes is a question central to contemporary ecology and biodiversity conservation. Previous work has shown that species diversity can affect ecosystem functioning and resilience. Here, we show that genotypic diversity can replace the role of species diversity in a species-poor coastal ecosystem, and it may buffer against extreme climatic events. In a manipulative field experiment, increasing the genotypic diversity of the cosmopolitan seagrass Zostera marina enhanced biomass production, plant density, and faunal abundance, despite near-lethal water temperatures due to extreme warming across Europe. Net biodiversity effects were explained by genotypic complementarity rather than by selection of particularly robust genotypes. Positive effects on invertebrate fauna suggest that genetic diversity has second-order effects reaching higher trophic levels. Our results highlight the importance of maintaining genetic as well as species diversity to enhance ecosystem resilience in a world of increasing uncertainty. 
 
Included in Topics:  Global climate change and genetic implications for ecological restoration; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success;   
 

 
Rice, K.J.; Emery, N.C. 2003. Managing microevolution: Restoration in the face of global climate change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 1: 469-478.  
 
Evidence is mounting that evolutionary change can occur rapidly and may be an important means by which species escape extinction in the face of global change. Consequently, biologists need to incorporate evolutionary thinking into management decisions in conservation and restoration ecology. Here, we review the genetic and demographic properties that influence the ability of populations to adapt to rapidly changing selective pressures. To illustrate how evolutionary thinking can influence conservation and restoration strategies, we compare the potential of two California plant communities (vernal pools and blue oak woodlands) to evolve in response to global change. We then suggest ways in which restoration biologists can manipulate the genetic architecture of target populations to increase their ability to adapt to changing conditions. While there may not be any universal rules regarding the adaptive potential of species, an understanding of the various processes involved in microevolution will increase the short- and long-term success of conservation and restoration efforts. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of basic population genetics principles; Global climate change and genetic implications for ecological restoration; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Rogers, D.L.; Montalvo, A.M. 2004. Genetically appropriate choices for plant materials to maintain biological diversity. University of California. Report to the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Lakewood, CO. Online: http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/publications/botany/plantgenetics.pdf.  
 
This document was prepared as a guide to making genetically appropriate choices for native plant materials in revegetation projects. This being its most appropriate identity, 'the Guide' or 'this Guide' are used when referring to this document rather than the longer document title. In general, the flow of this Guide is from principles to specific decisions and case studies. The first several chapters provide information on why genetic diversity and integrity are important for native plant species and why they are worth conserving and considering in management decisions. Information is provided about the nature of genetic diversity, how it is shaped by natural processes such as selection and migration, and how we measure it. In Chapter 5, we place genetic diversity within the context of long-term evolutionary processes, ecology, and life-history characteristics of plant species. Through this review, we emphasize the relationships between genetics and ecology'important for two reasons. First, it underscores the consistency in natural features and processes: when we conserve genetic diversity and integrity, we are concomitantly conserving other ecological and ecosystem processes and values. Second, more often than not, sufficient and direct genetic information for a particular species is not available. Hence, understanding the relationships and correlations with life-history traits can help make an informed decision in the absence of direct genetic information. We consider these chapters to be important in strengthening the decision- making ability of Guide users, as well as providing the rationale and context for the guidelines we present later. 
 
Included in Topics:  Discussion of basic population genetics principles; Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Examples of how species characteristics (life history, mating system, distribution, seed banking) may affect patterns of genetic variation; Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Examples of hybrid vigor (heterosis); Examples of outbreeding depression (hybrid breakdown); Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Characteristics of cultivars; Use of natives and techniques in ecological restoration; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Sanders, S.; McGraw, J.B. 2005. Population differentiation of a threatened plant: variation in response to local environment and implications for restoration. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 132, 4: 561-572.  
 
Intraspecific genetic variation in plants is frequently associated with adaptation to local environments. Detection of ecotypic differentiation can promote an understanding of a species' distribution and be an important consideration in restoration efforts. We performed a classical reciprocal transplant study using four natural populations of Hydrastis canadensis to test for localized adaptation. Hydrastis canadensis exhibited plasticity in response to site quality variation, and at the site level there was no evidence of local genetic adaptation or differential performance of plants derived from distinct source populations. However, the four H. canadensis sources responded differentially to microsites within the transplant site. A second study examined the importance of including multiple sources when introducing new populations for restoration purposes by comparing H. canadensis performance in populations that were mixtures of three natural sources versus populations that were monocultures of each natural source. We found that populations established with plant material from single sources performed better than those established with multiple sources. Collectively, our findings indicate that restoration efforts should involve multiple sources dispersed over multiple sites as a bet-hedging strategy to increase the likelihood of suitable source-site compatibility. However, within a given restoration site, these sources should be spatially separated, such that numerous populations are introduced, each comprised of only a single source. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of phenotypic plasticity; Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Use of natives and techniques in ecological restoration; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
Selbo, S.M.; Snow, A.A. 2005. Flowering Phenology and Genetic Similarity among Local and Recently Introduced Populations of Andropogon gerardii in Ohio. Restoration Ecology. 13, 3: 441-447.  
 
In Ohio and elsewhere, recent grassland plantings in the federal Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) have become much more extensive than native prairie remnants. The seed source for CRP grasslands in Ohio often comes from as far away as Missouri or Texas, which may be undesirable from the standpoint of conservation genetics. The goal of this study was to examine the potential for gene flow from large, recently introduced populations of Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii, Poaceae) to small local populations of this outcrossing perennial species. We examined the potential for cross-pollination between three local populations and three introduced CRP populations by comparing flowering phenologies. Flowering times overlapped extensively, indicating that cross-pollination is possible where local and introduced genotypes co-occur. To compare genetic variation in local and CRP populations, we analyzed variation at 68 RAPD loci in six populations of each type. Somewhat surprisingly, we found no significant differences in the genetic diversity or composition between the two groups (local vs. CRP). In summary, we found that local and introduced populations of Big bluestem have the potential to interbreed, based on their flowering periods, but further research is needed to determine whether local genotypes harbor unique genetic variation that could be jeopardized by hybridization with introduced genotypes. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of gene flow between introduced and native populations; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Seliskar, D.M.; Gallagher, J.L.; Burdick, D.M.; Mutz, L.A. 2002. The regulation of ecosystem functions by ecotypic variation in the dominant plant: a Spartina alterniflora salt-marsh case study. Journal of Ecology. 90: 1.  
 
1. Genetic differences among populations of a keystone species may affect ecosystem functional properties. We tested this by planting Spartina alterniflora from different geographical regions in a newly created salt marsh in Delaware, USA. 2. Spartina alterniflora plants from morphologically distinct short-form (back marsh) populations were originally collected from Massachusetts (4134' N), Delaware (3847' N), and Georgia (3125' N) in the USA and vegetatively propagated for 6 years in a salt water-irrigated common garden in Delaware before transfer to a newly created salt marsh. 3. The magnitude of the expression of marsh functions in the created marsh, measured over 5 years, remained distinct in patches of each ecotype. End of season aerial biomass, below-ground biomass, root and rhizome distribution, canopy height, stem density, and carbohydrate reserves were closer to values reported for the plants' native sites than to those typical of Delaware. Thus, many of the plant features characteristic of particular latitudes appear to be under genetic control. Such ecotypic differentiation influences ecosystem function through keystone resource and keystone modifier activities. 4. Respiration of the microbial community associated with either dead shoots or the soil varied with plant ecotype in the created wetland and the patterns reflected those reported for their native sites. High edaphic respiration under the Massachusetts ecotype was correlated with the high percentage of sugar in the rhizomes. Edaphic chlorophyll was greater under the canopies of the Massachusetts and Delaware ecotypes than under the Georgia canopy and exhibited a relationship similar to that of algal production rates reported for the native sites. Larval fish were most abundant in pit traps in the Massachusetts ecotype. 
 
Included in Topics:  Genetic considerations in multi-species interactions; Examples of ecotypes; Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
Smith, B.M.; Diaz, A.; Winder, L.; Daniels, R. 2005. The effect of provenance on the establishment and performance of Lotus corniculatus L. in a re-creation environment. Biological Conservation. 125, 1: 37-46.  
 
Field trials investigated the effect of provenance on the establishment of Lotus cornicalatus at a limestone quarry re-creation site. Cuttings were collected from two habitats (calcareous and non-calcareous) within 15 regions in the British Isles. Two ramets of each plant were propagated and planted in untreated (bare clay substrate) and treated plots (with topsoil). We investigated the effect of geographical and ecological distance on plant survival. size and fecundity. Local plants had greatest survival on the treated plots although this was not the case on the untreated plots where other provenances also performed well. In addition, there was a significant, albeit very weak, negative relationship between survival and geographical distance on the treated plots and plant size and fecundity on the untreated plots. In contrast, the effect of ecological distance was only significant for plant size on the untreated plots plants from more ecologically distant populations were larger and more fecund. This result was unexpected and may reflect adaptations amongst chalk grassland ecotypes (e.g. dwarfing) to extreme conditions (e.g. drought). Cyanogenesis, which has previously been linked to aspects of plant fitness, was not shown to have an effect on plant performance. In conclusion, this study suggests that there are regional differences between populations of L. corniculatus which may affect the performance of plants in re-creation schemes. Ecological provenance may also influence the fitness of plants when translocated. However, there was no evidence to support a consistent home-site advantage of local genotypes. Further long-term studies on a range of species are necessary. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of ecotypes; Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
St.Clair, B.J.; Johnson, R. 2004. Structure of Genetic Variation and Implications for the Management of Seed and Planting Stock. Fort Collins, CO:  
 
This paper reviews what is known about genetic structure of forest trees, and how that knowledge is used to determine safe limits to the movement of plant material. Geographic genetic variation in adaptive traits is of greatest importance to concerns of seed movement. Genetic structure in adaptive traits may be ascertained through long-term provenance and progeny tests, or short-term common garden studies in a nursery or nursery-like environment. These studies have shown that variation patterns are not consistent among species, among regions within a species, or among traits. The first seed zones were developed based on differences in climate and vegetation, and did not account for differences among species. Seed zones were recently revised in Oregon and Washington to reflect current knowledge of geographic genetic variation for individual species. Seed zones are an administrative convenience that directs managers how to bulk seeds from different stands. The use of seed transfer guidelines, on the other hand, allows greater flexibility and better knowledge of the risks of seed movement. Transfer guidelines, however, require keeping track of many small seed lots, which involves more time and expense. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of among and within-population genetic diversity; Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Stockwell, C.A.; Hendry, A.P.; Kinnison, M.T. 2003. Contemporary evolution meets conservation biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 18, 2: 94-101.  
 
Recent research has revealed that evolution often occurs on contemporary timescales, often within decades. Contemporary evolution is associated with the same factors that are driving the current extinction crisis: habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting and exotic species. Thus, it is relevant to many conservation situations. First, habitat fragmentation might influence the potential of a population to adapt in response environmental degradation. Second, certain harvesting strategies can result in the evolution of life-history traits, ultimately resulting in negative impacts on harvestable yield. Third, the establishment of exotic species can be influenced by their adaptive potential and our ability to limit that potential. Furthermore, contemporary evolution is of concern for intensively managed species, because it might reduce their fitness in native habitats. Ultimately, contemporary evolution is influenced by complex interactions among population size, genetic variation, the strength of selection, and gene flow, making most management scenarios unique. In a world filled with contemporary evolution, conservation efforts that ignore its implications will be less efficient and perhaps even risk prone. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of ways to maintain desired genetic composition and diversity; Examples of genetic shifts in cultivation; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Tu, M.; Randall, J. 2003. Working DRAFT: TNC Guidelines for Selecting Native Plant Propagules for Restoration, Rehabilitation, Roadside and Horticultural Plantings: Issues of Translocating Foreign Genes into Native Systems.  
 
This is the first edition of these guidelines; we expect to modify and update them regularly. We consulted several researchers with expertise on native plant population ecology and genetics for this edition and now seek your help gathering additional information and examples. Important questions include: Are there examples or other evidence of increases in genetic load as a result of planting propagules of native species that were collected at distant sites? Has loss of genetic diversity at a given site caused local extinctions or significant decreases in abundance of native plant species? Are some species panmictic? 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 
Whitham, T.G.; Bailey, J.K.; Schweitzer, J.A.; Shuster, S.M.; Bangert, R.K.; LeRoy, C.J.; Lonsdorf, E.V.; Allan, G.J.; DiFazio, S.P.; Potts, B.M. 2006. A framework for community and ecosystem genetics: from genes to ecosystems. Nature Reviews Genetics. 7: 510-523.  
 
Can heritable traits in a single species affect an entire ecosystem? Recent studies show that such traits in a common tree have predictable effects on community structure and ecosystem processes. Because these 'community and ecosystem phenotypes' have a genetic basis and are heritable, we can begin to apply the principles of population and quantitative genetics to place the study of complex communities and ecosystems within an evolutionary framework. This framework could allow us to understand, for the first time, the genetic basis of ecosystem processes, and the effect of such phenomena as climate change and introduced transgenic organisms on entire communities. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Genetic considerations in multi-species interactions; Examples of local adaptation across a biotic or abiotic gradient; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
Wilkinson, D.M. 2001. Is local provenance important in habitat creation?. Journal of Applied Ecology. 38, 6: 1371-1373.  
 
1. Many habitat creation schemes specify that biological material of local provenance should be used in reintroductions. This has come to be the 'text book' approach. However, very little discussion of the theory underlying this idea has been published in the scientific literature. This paper aims to initiate this much-needed discussion. 2. A major reason for the use of local provenance is the claimed importance of conserving locally adapted genotypes, which are assumed to show high fitness. Using both genetic arguments and a consideration of Quaternary environmental change I argue that this reason will seldom be important. 3. I make tentative suggestions of when local provenance is likely to be important and when it can be given a low priority in habitat creation schemes. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of broad adaptation; Examples of a relationship between seed source and restoration success;   
 

 
Williams, S.L. 2001. Reduced genetic diversity in eelgrass transplantations affects both population growth and individual fitness. Ecological Applications. 11, 5: 1472-1488.  
 
The transplantation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) for mitigation results in reduced genetic diversity among individuals and populations in southern California, the Chesapeake Bay, and New Hampshire. Although genetic variation determines the potential for eelgrass to adapt to the rapidly changing environment in its coastal and estuarine habitats, genetic considerations are not currently included in mitigation and restoration policy. I investigated where and how genetic diversity is lost during eelgrass transplantation. I then explored associations between genetic diversity and both vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction to evaluate the importance of genetic diversity for short-term population growth. Eelgrass beds used as donor populations vary in genetic diversity, and some have little or no detectable genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is reduced upon transplantation because donor plants are collected from small areas, leading to random sampling errors in selecting stock. This loss can be minimized by using information from regional surveys of genetic diversity and structure in potential donor populations and by revising donor stock collection. There were significant positive associations between genetic diversity and the sexual reproduction of eelgrass, with a similar trend for vegetative propagation. Individuals heterozygous for glucose-phosphate isomerase (GPI) developed flowering shoots more than did homozygotes. More seeds germinated from a genetically diverse, untransplanted population than from a transplanted population with low genetic diversity. A field transplantation of known multilocus genotypes revealed that leaf shoot density in high-diversity eelgrass increased almost twice as fast as in low-diversity eelgrass over 22 mo. In a mesocosm experiment under heat stress, eelgrass heterozygous for either GPI or malate de-hydrogenase (MDH) produced almost twice as many leaf shoots as homozygotes. The difference between treatments in all experiments increased over time. Together, these results imply that there could be economic incentives to planting genetically diverse eelgrass, and that genetic diversity contributes to eelgrass population viability even over the short term. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success;   
 

 
Wimp, G.M.; Martinsen, G.D.; Floate, K.D.; Bangert, R.K.; Whitham, T.G. 2005. Plant genetic determinants of arthropod community structure and diversity. Evolution. 59, 1 
 
To test the hypothesis that genes have extended phenotypes on the community, we quantified how genetic differences among cottonwoods affect the diversity, abundance, and composition of the dependent arthropod community. Over two years, five major patterns were observed in both field and common-garden studies that focused on two species of cottonwoods and their naturally occurring F1 and backcross hybrids (collectively referred to as four different cross types). We did not find overall significant differences in arthropod species richness or abundance among cottonwood cross types. We found significant differences in arthropod community composition among all cross types except backcross and narrowleaf cottonwoods. Thus, even though we found similar richness among cross types, the species that composed the community were significantly different. Using vector analysis, we found that the shift in arthropod community composition was correlated with percent Fremont alleles in the host plant, which suggests that the arthropod community responds to the underlying genetic differences among trees. We found 13 arthropod species representing different trophic levels that were significant indicators of the four different cross types. Even though arthropod communities changed in species composition from one year to the next, the overall patterns of community differences remained remarkably stable, suggesting that the genetic differences among cross types exert a strong organizing influence on the arthropod community. Together, these results support the extended phenotype concept. Few studies have observationally and experimentally shown that entire arthropod communities can be structured by genetic differences in their host plants. These findings contribute to the developing field of community genetics and suggest a strategy for conserving arthropod diversity by promoting genetic diversity in their host plants. 
 
Included in Topics:  Examples of the importance of genetic diversity; Genetic considerations in multi-species interactions; Examples of a relationship between genetic diversity and restoration success;   
 

 
Ying, C.C.; Yanchuk, A.D. 2006. The development of British Columbia's tree seed transfer guidelines: Purpose, concept, methodology, and implementation. Forest Ecology and Management. 227, 1-2: 1-13.  
 
The development of forest tree seed transfer research, guidelines, regulations and policy has a long history in Canada, as well as in many other parts of the world. While the implicit assumptions of what is involved in developing seed transfer limits, guidelines and policy are generally accepted, the scientific and biological processes that underpin their validity are not readily available to most foresters. We provide an overview of the historical and current technical approaches to the development of seed transfer in British Columbia, and the overall framework which incorporates key biological, statistical and administrative issues in regulating the movement of forest tree seed. An example of how seed transfer information is developed from field experiments to guidelines or limits is provided from the lodgepole pine provenance tests in BC. Seed transfer research as it relates to the movement of wild or seed orchard seed will need to factor in the complications being predicted with climate change. As such, seed transfer research will continue to evolve as field experiments mature, new tests are established, statistical approaches and geographic information systems improve, and climate prediction tools attain greater resolution. 
 
Included in Topics:  Global climate change and genetic implications for ecological restoration; Examples of seed transfer guidelines; Discussion of important genetic considerations in ecological restoration;   
 

 

 

 

 

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