CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Cimicifuga arizonica

Photographer:
R. Fletcher

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Cimicifuga arizonica


Family: 
Ranunculaceae  
Common Name: 
Arizona bugbane
Author: 
S. Wats.
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
944

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Cimicifuga arizonicaenlarge
Photographer: R. Fletcher

Cimicifuga arizonicaenlarge
Photographer: Joyce Maschinski
jmaschinski[at]fairchildgarden.org


Cimicifuga arizonica is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Joyce Maschinski, Ph.D. contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Cimicifuga arizonica


Arizona bugbane is an herbaceous perennial that reaches 3-6 feet in height. It has large, long-petioled lower leaves and small sessile upper leaves. The toothed leaf blades are divided into three leaflets. This species produces rather showy white flowers that grow on long stalks and bloom in slender clusters of small, petal-less flowers. The seeds resemble furry little bugs. (Phillips et al. 1996)

This is a rare plant that has very narrow habitat restrictions. It exists in only four small population areas in Arizona, and is not Federally protected. Major problems facing this species include an apparent lack of genetic variation as well as extremely poor germination rates in cultivation, which hinders attempts to grow individuals for reintroduction programs. (DeWald & Phillips 1996)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Arizona
State Range of  Cimicifuga arizonica
Habitat
  Often found in the transition zone between coniferous forest and riparian habitat at elevations of 5300 to 8300 feet (1829 to 2529 meters). This species is often found near perennial or intermittent streams, and appears to prefer locations with high humidity and moist, rich, fertile soils. (DeWald & Phillips 1996; Phillips et al. 1996)

Distribution
  Found only in central Arizona, (Coconino and Gila counties). All known populations occur within three National Forests; the Coconino, Kaibab, and Tonto. (DeWald & Phillips 1996)

Number Left
  Found in four population areas in Arizona (DeWald and Phillips 1996).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
1/20/1999
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
RT
 
1/19/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Arizona S2 8/1/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  63% of populations on the Coconino National Forest are in wilderness or Mexican spotted owl cores. (Phillips et al. 1996)
Flowers are pollinated by three bumblebee species, with peak flowering times (early August) coinciding with peak population abundance of the bumblebees. (DeWald & Phillips 1996)

Threats
  Flooding
Recreation
Road construction
Timber harvesting
Off-road vehicle use
Water diversions/impoundments
(Phillips et al. 1996)

Current Research Summary
  The Arboretum at Flagstaff conducted germination trials in 1990 and found that overall germination was poor. The only successful germination (11%) occurred after 4 months of cold stratification.

Current Management Summary
  The emphasis has been to preserve the status quo.

Research Management Needs
  Continue research into the life history of this species, and continue work on the conservation assessment and strategy for the species.

Ex Situ Needs
  Collect seed from a newly found population in James Canyon to ensure full genetic representation in the seed bank.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Kearney, T.H.; Peebles, R.H. 1973. Arizona flora. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085p.

Rutman, S. 1992. Handbook of Arizona's endangered, threatened, and candidate plants. Phoenix, Arizona: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Conference Proceedings

DeWald, L.E.; Phillips, B.G. Morphological variation within and among Cimicifuga arizonica populations. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; September 11-14; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, J.; Hammond, H.D.; Holter, L., editors. 1996. USDA and US Forest Service. p 53-59.

Phillips, B.; Franz, C.; Popowski, R.; Warren, P.L. Conservation Assessment and Strategy for Cimicifuga arizonica Watson (Arizona Bugbane) on the Coconino and Kaibab National Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference; September 11-14; Flagstaff, AZ. In: Maschinski, J.; Hammond, H.D.; Holter, L., editors. 1996. USDA and US Forest Service. p 213-218.

Electronic Sources

Arizona Game and Fish Department. (1999). Plant Abstracts. Compiled and edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. http://www.gf.state.az.us/frames/fishwild/hdms_site/Abstracts/Plants/abstracts%20-%20plants.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Compton, J.A.; Culham, A.; Gibbings, J.G.; Jury, S.L. 1998. Phylogeny of Actaea including Cimicifuga (Ranunculaceae) inferred from nrDNA ITS sequence variation. Biochemical Systematics & Ecology. 26, 2: 185-197.

DeWald, L.E.; Moser, L.P. in review (1997). Genetic variation among Cimicifuga arizonica populations. Conservation Biology.

Pellmyr, O. 1985. Pollination ecology of Cimicifuga arizonica Ranunculaceae. Botanical Gazette. 146: 404-412.

USFWS. 2000. Notice of Reclassification of Nine Candidate Taxa. Federal Register. 64, 204: 63044-63047.

Reports

2002. General Species Information. Phoenix, Arizona: Arizona Ecological Services Field Office.


  This profile was updated on 9/28/2010
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