CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Gardenia mannii

Photographer:
Winifred Singeo

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Gardenia mannii


Family: 
Rubiaceae  
Common Name: 
Mann's gardenia
Author: 
St. John & Kuykend.
Growth Habit: 
Tree
CPC Number: 
7618

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Gardenia manniienlarge
Photographer: Winifred Singeo
wsingeo[at]co.honolulu.hi.us

Gardenia manniienlarge
Photographer: Winifred Singeo
wsingeo[at]co.honolulu.hi.us


Gardenia mannii is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Winnie Singeo contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Gardenia mannii


This member of the coffee family is a tree that grows to a height of up to 50 ft (15 m). Lance- to elliptic-shaped leaves have a sticky, glossy upper surface, and are clustered toward the tips of branches. Solitary flowers form at branch ends and are cream/white colored. These fragrant blossoms open in the late afternoon and last for about two days. (Wagner et al. 1999; USFWS 1996)

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Gardenia mannii
Habitat
  Found on moderate to moderately steep gulch slopes between 980 and 2,460 feet in elevation. Medium to wet forests.

Distribution
  Grows in the Koolau and Waianae Mountain Ranges on the island of Oahu, Hawaii.

Number Left
  27 populations total between 70 and 100 individuals, with 23 of the 27 populations each containing 5 or fewer individuals (USFWS 1996)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
11/25/1989
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
12/12/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
8/10/1998

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii S1 LE 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Co-dominates with Ohia (Metrosideros spp.) and grows with a mix of native plants.

Threats
  As cited by the USFWS in 1996 when the species was listed as Federally Endangered, threats include:
Habitat degradation and/or destruction by feral pigs
Potential damaging impacts from military activities
Competition with alien plants such as Koster's curse, prickly Florida blackberry, and strawberry guava
Potential fires and other extinction risks from naturally-occurring events
Reduced reproductive vigor due to the widely dispersed, small number of remaining individuals in the wild

Current Research Summary
  Tissue culture research is currently being done at the Lyon Arboretum, Hawaii. (Sugii 2001)

Current Management Summary
  Gardenia mannii are primarily being grown in the plant nursery at Wahiawa Botanical Garden. Some plants are outplanted at Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, located near the Koolau Mountains.

Research Management Needs
  Symbiotic relationships, if any
Water relations research
Susceptibility to diseases and pests

Ex Situ Needs
  Propagation/long-term plant maintenance information.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i--Revised Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. 1853p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Hawaiian Native Plant Genera. Gerald D. Carr, University of Hawaii Botany Department. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/natives.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Huppman, L. 1995. Hawa'i's Gardenias. The Kukui Leaf. 22: 6-7.

USFWS. 1995. Proposed Endangered Status for Twenty-five Plant Species from the Island of Oahu, HI. Federal Register. 60, 190: 51398-51417.

USFWS. 1996. Determination of Endangered Status for Twenty-five Plant Species from the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. Federal Register. 61, 198: 53089-53108.

USFWS. 2002. Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 102: 37108-37156.

Personal Communications

Sugii, N. 2001. Personal communication with Nellie Sugii, Lyon Arboretum (email July 27, 2001). To Winifred Singeo, Honolulu Botanical Gardens.

Reports

TNC. 2000. Honouliuli Preserve Master Plan. The Nature Conservancy. Web site;.

USFWS. 1995. News Release: 42 Hawaiian Plants Proposed for Listing as Threatened, Endangered Species. Honolulu, HI: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service - Region 1. p.3.

USFWS. 1998. Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.207 , plus appendices. Final Recovery Plan.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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