CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Eugenia koolauensis

Photographer:
Waimea

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Eugenia koolauensis


Family: 
Myrtaceae  
Common Names: 
Ko`olau eugenia, Koolau eugenia, nioi
Author: 
Degener
Growth Habit: 
Tree, Shrub
CPC Number: 
7615

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Eugenia koolauensisenlarge
Photographer: Waimea

Eugenia koolauensisenlarge
Photographer: Waimea


Eugenia koolauensis is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
David Orr contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Eugenia koolauensis


Eugenia koolauensis is a member of the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is a small tree or shrub, and can reach 2 - 7 meters (7 - 23 feet) in height. Its branch tips are covered with dense brown hairs and their leathery oval leaves are densely hairy on the lower surface. From February to December, Eugenia koolauensis reveals its white flowers, which grow from the leaf axils on short stalks.

Eugenia koolauensis was historically known from Maunaloa on western Moloka`i and from scattered areas on the island of O`ahu. Now it is known only from 8 populations on O`ahu. This species is severely threatened by its limited numbers, which was caused mainly by weed competition and the effects of feral pigs.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Eugenia koolauensis
Habitat
  This species exist in dry gulches and ridges in mesic forests dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or Diospyros
sp. From 57 to 437 m (187 to 1433 feet) in elevation (USFWS 2002) and (Wagner et al. 1999).

Other associated plant species include Alyxia oliviformis, Bobea elaitor, Carex meyenii, Dicranopteris linearis, Myrsine lessertiana, Nestegis sandwicensis, Pleomele halapepe, Pouteria sandwicensis, Psydrax odorata, Rauvolfia sandwicensis, or Styphelia tameiameiae. (USFWS 2002).

Distribution
  On the island of O`ahu only. From Papali gulch, the north fork of Kamananui Stream, in the regions of Pupukea and Paumalu in the northern Koolau Mountains, Hawaii Loa and Aina Haina, and two disjunct populations in the southeastern Koolau Mountains (USFWS 1996) and (Wagner et al. 1999).

Number Left
  O`ahu-Papali Gulch, the north fork of Kamananui Stream, in the regions of Aina Haina and Hawaii Loa, and two disjunct populations in the southeastern Koolau Mountains. There are 8 populations remaining with less than 200 individuals (USFWS 2001) and (USFWS 1996).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
11/15/1993
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
3/28/1994
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
8/10/1998

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii S1 LE 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Reproductive cycles, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors are all unknown (USFWS 1996).

Threats
  Feral pigs.
Alien plant species.
Possibly fire.
Human threat.
Stochastic extinction due to small population size.
(USFWS 1996)

Current Research Summary
  Propagation-seed
(USFWS 1996)

Current Management Summary
  Weeding and some pig control (USFWS 1996).
In May 2002, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service determined that a designation of critical habitat was prudent for this species. (USFWS 2002)

Research Management Needs
  Exclosures to protect wild plants from pigs.
Weed control.
Decrease human threat.
Monitoring.
(USFWS 1996)

Ex Situ Needs
  Propagation.
Seed banking and germplasm preservation.
Ex situ plantings at botanical gardens.
Genetic studies.
Physiological studies.
(USFWS 1996)

References

Books (Single Authors)

Wagner, W.L.; Bruegmann, M.M.; Herbst, D.R; Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press Honolulu.

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i--Revised Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. 1853p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Journal Articles

USFWS. 1992. Proposed Endangered Status for 11 Plants From the Koolau Mountain Range, Island of Oahu, Hawaii. Federal Register. 57, 199: 47028-47040.

USFWS. 1994. Endangered Status for 11 Plant Species from the Koolau Mountain Range, Island of Oahu, HI. Federal Register. 59: 14482-14493.

USFWS. 2002. Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 102: 37108-37156.

USFWS. 2002. Revised Determinations of Prudency and Proposed Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Island of Molokai, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 66: 16492-16579.

Wilson, K.A. 1957. A taxonomic study of the genus Eugenia (Myrtaceae) in Hawaii. Pacific Science. 11: 161-180.

Reports

USFWS. 1996. Recovery Plan for Ko`olau Mountain Plant Cluster. Portland, OR: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.124.

USFWS. 1998. Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.207 , plus appendices. Final Recovery Plan.

USFWS. 2001. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Species List. March 30, 2000. Honolulu: Unpublished. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.19.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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