CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Agalinis auriculata

Photographer:
J. Locklear

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Agalinis auriculata


Family: 
Scrophulariaceae  
Common Names: 
auriculate false foxglove, eared false foxglove, earleaf foxglove, earleaf gerardia
Author: 
(Michx.) Blake
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
6601

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Agalinis auriculataenlarge
Photographer: J. Locklear
jlocklear1[at]unl.edu
Image Owner: Nebraska Statewide Arboretum

Agalinis auriculataenlarge
Photographer: J. Locklear
jlocklear1[at]unl.edu
Image Owner: Nebraska Statewide Arboretum


Agalinis auriculata is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Jim Locklear contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Agalinis auriculata


Apparently it's not easy being an annual, disturbance-dependent hemiparasite. But such is the life of the earleaf foxglove, a fall-blooming wildflower that formerly occurred in prairie and prairie-like habitat from New Jersey to Minnesota, south to Texas, Mississippi and Alabama. As an annual that completes its life cycle in a single growing season, it requires open places in the vegetation for its seed to germinate - perhaps created in the past by herds of bison or elk, now both gone from the prairie. As a hemiparasite, it depends on root connections with other plants to obtain some of its nutrients. Today this unusual plant is found in only a scattering of sites across its formerly expansive range.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Alabama
Arkansas
District of Columbia
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
New Jersey
Ohio
Oklahoma
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
Wisconsin
State Range of  Agalinis auriculata
Habitat
  Historically known to occur in mesic to wet-mesic tallgrass prairie (IL, IN, IA, KS, MI, MN, MO, OK & WI), blackland prairie (AL, AR, MS & TX), and prairie-like glades, barrens, and openings (IN, KY, OH, SC, TN & VA). Historical occurrences in MD and PA (Pennell 1928 and 1935) appear to correspond with the distribution of serpentine rock outcrops and associated barrens and grassland vegetation (Tyndall and Hull 1999). Information on habitat and ecology of historical occurrences in DC, NJ, & WV is lacking. Habitat of extant occurrences typically exhibits disturbance, and often has woody vegetation encroaching. A number of extant occurrences are associated with degraded prairie pastures, formerly cultivated fields, roadsides and floodplains.

Distribution
  Historically widespread distribution centered in the tallgrass prairie region of MO, eastern OK, eastern KS, eastern IA, and IL, with scattered occurrences in TX, AR, MS, AL, TN, KY, SC, VA, MD, DC, NJ, PA, OH, IN, MI, WI and MN.

Number Left
  About 40-50 known occurrences, most with small populations of only 25-250 individuals (Rawinski 1990). Largest populations are found in AR, MS & MO. Recently discovered in KY (White 2001). Presumed extirpated in MI, NJ & TX. Possibly extirpated in AL, DC & WV. Typical of an annual plant species, extant populations fluctuate in number of individuals from year-to-year.

Protection

Global Rank:  
G3
 
12/22/2008
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
 
1/19/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Arkansas S1 3/27/1989  
  Illinois S2 PT 9/28/1989  
  Indiana S1 SE 11/2/1989  
  Iowa S2? 2/29/1988  
  Kansas S1 2/29/1988  
  Kentucky  
  Maryland SH X 2/5/1990  
  Michigan SX X 1/10/1992  
  Minnesota E 7/1/1996  
  Mississippi S1 PE 1/9/1986  
  Missouri S1 S2 11/28/1990  
  New Jersey SX 3/4/1992  
  Ohio S1  
  Oklahoma S1 1/9/1989  
  Pennsylvania S1 PE 5/8/1990  
  South Carolina S1 PE 1/3/1990  
  Tennessee S1 E 8/11/1986  
  Tennessee Valley Authority S?  
  Texas SX 2/20/1992  
  Virginia SH RE 2/22/1991  
  West Virginia SH 4/2/1984  
  Wisconsin SH NONE 6/23/1992  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  This species is hemiparasitic, producing chlorophyll but deriving nutrients by parasitizing the roots of other plants. Helianthus occidentalis and Rudbeckia fulgida proved to be acceptable host plants in greenhouse studies (Cunningham and Parr 1990). Musselman (1972) found root attachments (haustoria) between earleaf foxglove and a monocot, possibly Poa compressa, in an Illinois prairie. Observations in KS and MO show wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) to be a common associate, although it is unknown if it is a host of earleaf gerardia.
Appears to be dependent on habitat disturbance to open up areas for seed germination. Observed colonizing soil mounds created by pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius) activity in St. Louis County, MO (Orzell and Summers 1983).

Threats
  Habitat loss.
Succession of open habitat to woody vegetation.
Summer haying of prairie habitat before seed is ripened and released.

Current Research Summary
  Seed germinates in March and April, plants flower from August to September, and set fruit in September and October (Baskin et al. 1991).
Seed is dormant when dispersed; requires light to germinate; remains viable in the soil for at least 4 years (Baskin et al. 1991).
Successfully propagated from seed using three month cold-moist stratification (Nebraska Statewide Arboretum).

Current Management Summary
  Not Available

Research Management Needs
  Monitoring of populations.
Effects of burning and other methods of disturbance.
Host plants.
Roll of soil seed bank in ecology.

Monitoring Efforts
  Not Available

Ex Situ Needs
  Build seed bank with collections from throughout species' range.

References

Books (Single Authors)

2000. Missouri Plants of Conservation Concern. Jefferson City, MO: Conservation Commission of Missouri--Missouri Department of Conservation.

Coffin, B.; Pfannmuller, L. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press. 473p.

Deam, C.M. 1984. Flora of Indiana. Indianapolis, Indiana: Division Forestry, Department of Conservation. 1236p.

Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster, Pa.: Lancaster Press Inc.

Gray, A.; Fernald, M.L. 1987. Gray's manual of botany: a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Portland, Or.: Dioscorides Press. 1632p.

Herkert, J.; Ebinger, J.E. 2002. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: Status and distribution. Springfield, IL: Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. 161p.

Mohlenbrock, R.H.; Ladd, D.M. 1978. Distribution of Illinois Vascular Plants. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 282p.

Pennell, F.W. 1935. The Scrophulariaceae Of Eastern Temperate North America. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Academy of Natural Sciences. 650p.

Smith, E.B. 1988. An Atlas and Annotated List of the Vascular Plants of Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas. 489p.

Steyermark, J.A. 1977. Flora of Missouri. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 1728p.

Swink, F.; Wilhelm, G. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Lisle, Illinois: The Morton Arboretum. 922p.

Books (Sections)

Tyndall, R.W.; Hull, J.C. 1999. Vegetation, flora, and plant physiology of serpentine barrens of Eastern North America. In: Anderson, R.C.; Fralish, J.S.; Baskin, J.M., editors. Savannas, Barrens, and Rock Outcrop Plant Communities of North America. Cambridge University Press. New York, NY. p 67-82.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Rare and Vulnerable Plant Species of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory. http://www.biosurvey.ou.edu/candhome.html. Accessed: 2002.

California Native Plant Society. (2007). Inventory of rare and endangered plants. [online database].v7-07d http://cnps.org/inventory. Accessed: 2007.

WIS. (2002). Wisconsin Vascular Plants--on species, including maps and photos. Wisconsin State Herbarium: University of Wisconsin - Madison (WIS). http://www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora/. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Anderson, C.J. 1998. Treasures from the great northern Missouri desert. Missouriensis. 19: 23-31.

Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C.; Parr, P.D.; Cunningham, M. 1991. Seed germination ecology of the rare hemiparasite Tomanthera auriculata (Scrophulariaceae). Castanea. 56, 51-58

Bender, J. 1998. Dave Skinner's New Plant Discovery. Naturally Kentucky, Special Cumberland Mountains Issue. No. 28: 5.

Catling, P.M.; Brownell, V.R. 1995. A review of the alvars of the Great Lakes Region: Distribution, floristic composition, biogeography and protection. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 109, 2: 143-171.

Chester, E.W.; Woffard, B.E.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1997. A floristic study of the barrens on the southwestern Pennyroyal Plain, Kentucky and Tennessee. Castanea. 62, 3: 161-172.

Cunningham, M.; Parr, P.D. 1990. Successful culture of the rare annual hemiparasite Tomanthera auriculata (Michx.) Raf. (Scrophulariaceae). Castanea. 55, 4: 266-271.

Derby, J.A.; Wilson, R.C. 1979. of pavement plains in the San Bernardino Mountains. Aliso. 9: 436-474.

Diggs, G.M.; Lipscomb, B.L.; O'Kennon, R.J. 1999. Shinners & Mahler's Flora of North Central Texas. Sida, Botanical Miscellany. No. 16

Foti, T.L. 1989. Blackland prairies of southwestern Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science. 43: 23-28.

Knoop, J.D. 1988. Tomanthera auriculata (Michx.) Raf. extant in Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science. 88: 120-121.

Leidolf, A.; McDaniel, S. 1998. A floristic study of black prairie plant communities at Sixteen Section Prairie, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi. Castanea. 63, 1: 51-62.

Molano-Flores, B.; Koontz, J.A.; Feist, M.A. 2007. Genetic Diversity of the Illinois-threatened Agalinis auriculata (Orobanchaceae) and Two Common Congeners. American Midland Naturalist. 58, 2: 279-291.

Musselman, L.J. 1972. Root parasitism of Macranthera flammea and Tomanthera auriculata (Scrophulariaceae). Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 88: 57-60.

Nelson, J.B. 1989. Noteworthy collections, South Carolina. Castanea. 54: 50-53.

Orzell, S.L.; Summers, B.W. 1983. Agalinus auriculata (Michx.) Blake (Scrophulariaceae), in southeastern St. Louis County, Missouri. Castanea. 48: 272-276.

Pennell, F.W. 1929. Agalinis and allies in North America--II. Proceedings Academy Natural Sciences Philadelphia. : 111-249.

Rizzo, L. 2001. Rebirth of a prairie. Missouri Conservationist. 62, 8: 17-21.

Personal Communications

White, D. 2001. Botanist, Kentucky State Nature Perserves Commission, Frankfurt, KY. Telephone conversation with J.H. Locklear, Nebraska Statewide Arboretum.

Reports

Fleming, G.P; Coulling, P.P.; Walton, D.P.; McCoy, K.M.; Parrish, M.R. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Richmond, VA: Unpublished report. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. p.76.

Locklear, J. 1987. Plant Conservation Activities: 1987 Annual Report. Lincoln, NE: From the Nebraska Statewide Arboretum to the Center for Plant Conservation. p.3.

McCance, R.M., Jr.; Burns, J.F. 1984. Ohio Endangered and Threatened Vascular Plants: Abstracts of State-listed Taxa. Columbus, Ohio: Department of Natural Resources.

Rawinski, T.J. 1990. Final status survey report: The distribution and abundance of earred false foxglove (Tomanthera auriculata). Newton Center, MA: Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.4 + attachments.

Steinhauer, R. 1995. Element stewarship abstract: Tomanthera auriculata, earleafed foxglove. Little Rock, AR: The Arkansas Nature Conservancy. p.9.


  This profile was updated on 9/28/2010
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