CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Scirpus hallii

Photographer:
Susanne Masi

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Scirpus hallii


Family: 
Cyperaceae  
Common Name: 
Hall's bulrush
Author: 
Gray
Growth Habit: 
Graminoid
CPC Number: 
6550

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Scirpus halliienlarge
Photographer: Susanne Masi
smasi[at]chicagobotanic.org

Scirpus halliienlarge
Photographer: Susanne Masi
smasi[at]chicagobotanic.org


Scirpus hallii is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Andrea Tietmeyer contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Scirpus hallii


Scirpus hallii, a delicate annual sedge, is a very specialized plant with a narrow habitat tolerance. It is generally found on bare, moist sandy shores of ponds where the water levels fluctuate. It is believed that the changes in water level favor the germination of the plant's seed and also act as a barrier to competition from other plants that cannot survive such changes.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Kansas
Kentucky
Massachusetts
Michigan
Missouri
State Range of  Scirpus hallii
Habitat
  Scirpus hallii occurs on sandy substrates such as the sandy borders of ponds or lakeshores. The fluctuating water table in these habitats maintain favorable conditions for the persistence of this and other similar species (Bowles 1990). Seeds germinate in areas around the pond where the soil is moist and exposed, with little competition from perennials.

Scirpus hallii is, however, associated with several other plant species: Agrotis spp., Alisma spp., Ammania coccinea, Bacopa spp., Cyperus spp., Echinochloa spp., Eleocharis spp., Fimbristylis autumnalis (L) Roemer & Schultes,., Heterantha spp., Hypericum spp., Isoetes spp., Juncus, Leersia, Lindernia spp., Liporcarphs micrantha, Ludwigia spp., Lycopus spp.; Polygonum spp., Rhexia spp., Rhynchospora spp., Rorippa spp., Rotala ramosior (l.) Koehne, Sagittaria spp., Schoenoplectus spp., scirpus spp., Typha spp., and Xyris. Of these species, Echinodorus tenellus (parvulus) is endangered in the Midwestern States and is of special concern to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife.

Distribution
  Scirpus hallii has a large but discontinuous range; it occurs in discrete, scattered populations ranging from the Great Lake States east to Massachusetts, south to Georgia and as far west as Kansas. The species has not been recorded from Georgia, Massachusetts, Nebraska, or Iowa in the last 25 years (McKenzie 1998). Populations are known to fluctuate from year to year depending on site suitability. This species may disappear from a site and reappear when seed germination conditions are favorable (McKenzie 1998).

Number Left
  Two colonies form a population at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Bowles 1990). Twenty seven populations in Illinois (Robertson and Phillipe 1993). Two Populations in Michigan (Robertson and Phillipe 1993). Three populations in Missouri (Robertson and Phillipe 1994). According to McKenzie (1998) populations have been found in Alexander, Cass, Kankakee, Mason and Morgan Counties of Illinois; Porter County, Indiana; Reno County, Kansas; Christian County, Kentucky; Howell and Scott Counties in Missouri and Dane County, Wisconsin since 1993.

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2G3
 
8/29/2007
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
SC
 
1/19/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Illinois S1 LE 1/1/2002  
  Indiana S1 E 11/1/2002  
  Kansas S1 7/11/2000  
  Kentucky E E 1/1/2000  
  Massachusetts SX H 6/2/1989  
  Michigan S2 T 11/15/2000  
  Missouri S1 E 7/16/2001  
  Nebraska S1 1/1/2001  
  Oklahoma S1 1/1/2001  
  Wisconsin SH 1/12/2001  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  The ecological relationships between Scirpus hallii and other species has not been investigated.

Threats
  Invasion by the exotic purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)
Wetland destruction and alteration
Predation from mute swans and Canadian Geese
Most (87%) of populations are on private land and are not protected (McKenzie 1998).
Long-term successional changes

Current Research Summary
  Experiments in stimulating seed germination by manipulating various levels of chemicals, water levels and temperature have been conducted by Baskin and Baskin since 1991.

Current Management Summary
  Most sites containing Scirpus hallii are not under a management plan and receive no government protection.


Research Management Needs
  Management plans for Scirpus hallii will most likely be different from other endangered or rare species for two important reasons. First, land having Scirpus hallii populations needs to be purchased so that populations can be monitored and protected. Second, population protection and management needs to consider succession regulation in such a way that open sandy spaces can be maintained (Robertson and Phillipe 1993). Field research is also needed to assess the community characteristics and ecological associates of Scirpus hallii (isn't this listed above?).

Ex Situ Needs
  Of particular interest would be the continued work in seed banking and germination in relation to water fluctuation. Such information would be useful in determining population distribution. Mechanisms controlling seed germination (limitations on seed viability) and development of mature plants are still unclear (McKenzie 1998).

References

Books (Single Authors)

2000. Missouri Plants of Conservation Concern. Jefferson City, MO: Conservation Commission of Missouri--Missouri Department of Conservation.

Crow, G.E. 1982. New England's rare, threatened, and endangered plants. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 169p.

Gleason, H.A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York, NY: Hafner Press. 1732p.

Godfrey, R.K.; Wooten, J.W. 1979. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of southeastern United States: Monocotyledons. Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

Gray, A.; Fernald, M.L. 1987. Gray's manual of botany: a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Portland, Or.: Dioscorides Press. 1632p.

Herkert, J.; Ebinger, J.E. 2002. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: Status and distribution. Springfield, IL: Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. 161p.

Jones, S.B., Jr.; Coile, N.C. 1988. The distribution of the vascular flora of Georgia. Athens, GA: University of Georgia. 230p.

Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1976. The Illustrated Flora of Illinois. Sedges: Cyperus to Scleria. Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 192p.

Radford, A.E.; Ahles, H.E.; Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1183p.

Steyermark, J.A. 1977. Flora of Missouri. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 1728p.

Swink, F.; Wilhelm, G. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Lisle, Illinois: The Morton Arboretum. 922p.

Books (Sections)

Crispin, S.; Penskar, M. 1990. Scirpus hallii Gray (Hall's clubrush); Unpublished abstract for Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Endangered Species Manual.

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Sheviak, C.J. 1981. Endangered and threatened plants. In: Bowles, M.L., editor. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois. Illinois Department of Conservation. Springfield. p 70-179.

Books (Edited Volumes)

Bowles, M.L.; Diersing, V.E; Ebinger, J.E.; Schultz, H.C. 1981 Endangered and threatened vertebrate animals and vascular plants of Illinois. Illinois Department of Conservation. 190p.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Rare and Vulnerable Plant Species of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory. http://www.biosurvey.ou.edu/candhome.html. Accessed: 2002.

Kost, M.A. (2000). Natural Community Abstract for Coastal Plain Marsh. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing MI. 5 pp. http://www.dnr.state.mi.us/wildlife/heritage/mnfi/abstracts/ecology/coastal_plain_marsh.pdf. Accessed: 2002.

WIS. (2002). Wisconsin Vascular Plants--on species, including maps and photos. Wisconsin State Herbarium: University of Wisconsin - Madison (WIS). http://www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora/. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

1999. Funding Awards. Flora of North America Newsletter. 13, 3-4: 12.

Beetle, A.A. 1942. Studies in the genus Scirpus L. V. Notes of the Section Actaeogeton Reich. American Journal of Botany. 29: 653-656.

Beetle, A.A. 1947. Scirpus. North American Flora. 18, 8: 481-504.

Brodowicz, W. 1990. Noteworthy collections. Scirpus hallii A. Gray. Michigan Botanist. 29: 31.

Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1963. The Cyperaceae of Illinois: 7. Scirpus. American Midland Naturalist. 70, 1: 1-46.

Smith, G.S.; Yatskievych, G. 1996. Notes on the genus Scirpus sensu lato in Missouri. Rhodora. 98, 894: 168-179.

Reports

Beal, E.O.; Thieret, J.W. 1986. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Kentucky: Scientific and Technical Series, Number 5. Frankfort: Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. p.315.

Bowles, M.L. 1990. Report on the status of endangered and threatened plants of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore: monitoring of species new to the lakeshore and re-monitoring of selected species. Lisle, IL: The Morton Arboretum.

McKenzie, P.M. 1998. Hall's Bulrush (Schoenoplectus hallii) Status Assessment. Columbia, MO: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.32.

Ostlie, W.R. 1990. Element Stewarship Abstract for Scirpus hallii-Hall's bulrush. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy. p.8.

Ostlie, W.R.; Gottlieb, S. 1992. Element Global Ranking Form for Scirpus hallii. The Nature Conservancy. p.3.

Robertson, K.R.; Phillippe, L.R.; Gehlhausen, S.M. 1994. The current status of Scirpus hallii A. Gray, Hall's bulrush, in Illinois. Springfield, Illinois: Illinois Department of Conservation.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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