CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Cyanea superba ssp. superba

Photographer:
Nellie Sugii

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Cyanea superba ssp. superba


Family: 
Campanulaceae  
Common Name: 
haha
Author: 
(Wawra) Lammers
Growth Habit: 
Tree
CPC Number: 
6224

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Cyanea superba ssp. superbaenlarge
Photographer: Nellie Sugii
sugii[at]hawaii.edu
Image Owner: Harold L. Lyon Arboretum

Cyanea superba ssp. superbaenlarge
Photographer: Nellie Sugii
sugii[at]hawaii.edu
Image Owner: Harold L. Lyon Arboretum


Cyanea superba ssp. superba is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Nellie Sugii contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Cyanea superba ssp. superba


Cyanea superba is a palm-like tree sometimes reaching 20 feet in height that is crowned by a tight rosette of leaves. It bears numerous white and cream-colored flowers on pendant inflorescences that hang up to a foot below its leaves. This species is most severely threatened by habitat degradation caused by introduced animals and competition with more aggressive exotic plants. (Wagner et al. 1999)

In 1996, Cyanea superba was known from 2 small populations on Federal and State land, consisting of a total of 10 plants. By 1998, all 5 plants on State land had died and only the 5 plants on Federal land remained. In just 3 years, 4 out of the 5 remaining wild individuals have died and now only a single remaining wild plant of Cyanea superba is left. In 2000, this remaining plant flowered and fruited for the first time and seed was collected for in vitro propagation.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Cyanea superba ssp. superba
Habitat
  Cyanea superba grows in the understory on sloping terrain on well drained, rocky substrate. (Recovery Plan 1998)

Distribution
  Makua Military Reservation, Wai`anae Mountains, O`ahu. (Recovery Plan 1996), Recovery Plan 1998) and (Wagner, et. al 1999)

Number Left
  1 site
1 population
1 individual
(Pers. comm. Kapua Kawelo 2001)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1T1
 
8/7/1990
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
 
3/4/1994
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
8/10/1998

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii S1 E 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Rat predation especially of the developing fruit seriously threatens this species. The flowering season of Cyanea superba varies from year to year depending on precipitation. It ranges from late August to early October (USFWS 1998).

Threats
  Habitat degradation
Exotic plant competition
Feral pig grazing
Invertebrates
Military impact
Rat predation
(USFWS 1998, 2001)

Current Research Summary
  Propagation (Harold L. Lyon Arboretum, DOFAW-Pahole Mid-elevation Nursery, National Tropical Botanical Garden)
(USFWS 1998)

Current Management Summary
  Enclosures (U.S. Army)
Weed control (U.S. Army)
Rat control (U.S. Army)
Intensive monitoring (U.S. Army)
Feral control (U.S. Army)
Invertebrate control (U.S. Army)
Outplanting (U.S. Army, DOFAW-Pahole Mid-elevation Nursery)
(USFWS 1998) and (Pers. Comm. Kapua Kawelo 2001)

Research Management Needs
  Increase in propagation production
Outplanting
Fire protection
(Pers. Comm. Kapua Kawelo 2001) and (USFWS 1998)

Ex Situ Needs
  Genetic study
Seed banking
Germplasm storage
Biology and physiology study
Propagation improvement
(USFWS 1998)

References

Books (Single Authors)

Sohmer, S.H.; Gustafson, R. 1987. Plants and Flowers of Hawaii. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. 160p.

Wagner, W.L.; Bruegmann, M.M.; Herbst, D.R; Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press Honolulu.

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i--Revised Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. 1853p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Conference Proceedings

Burt, M.; Char, A.; Costello, V.; Jokiel, J.; Kawelo, K.; Kim, S.; Rohrer, J. (Cyanea superba), An Example of Army Endangered Species Management. The 1998 Hawai'i Conservation Conference; Honolulu, Hawai'i. 1998. Sponsored by the Secretariat for Conservation Biology. p 3.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Hawaiian Native Plant Genera. Gerald D. Carr, University of Hawaii Botany Department. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/natives.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Yoshinaga, A. (2002). Seed storage characteristics of Hawaiian species. [Web site] University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96848. http://www.hawaii.edu/scb/seed/seedtabl.html. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Buss, C.C.; Lammers, T.G.; Wise, R.R. 2001. Seed coat morphology and its systematic implications in Cyanea and other genera of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae). American Journal of Botany. 88, 1301-1308

USFWS. 1990. Listing Protection Proposed for Six Species. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 15, 8: 1, 4.

USFWS. 1990. Proposed Endangered Status for Cyanea superba, a Hawaiian Plant. Federal Register. 55, 137: 29073-29074.

USFWS. 1991. Determination of Endangered Status for Cyanea superba, an Hawaiian Plant. Federal Register. 56, 176: 46235-46239.

USFWS. 1995. Recovery Updates. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 20, 2: 18.

Personal Communications

Lamoureux, C.H. July 21, 1995. Info. on and slides for 20 National Collection taxa for CPC. Letter to Sud, Anukriti. University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Reports

USFWS. 1998. Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p.207 , plus appendices. Final Recovery Plan.

USFWS. 2001. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Species List. March 30, 2000. Honolulu: Unpublished. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.19.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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