CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Ayenia limitaris

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Ayenia limitaris


Family: 
Sterculiaceae  
Common Names: 
kidney petal, Texas ayenia
Author: 
Cristobal
Growth Habit: 
Subshrub, Shrub
CPC Number: 
526

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Ayenia limitarisenlarge
Image Owner: San Antonio Botanical Garden


Ayenia limitaris is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Cindy Barrett contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Ayenia limitaris


Ayenia limitaris is a 2-5 foot tall perennial herb/shrub with soft heart-shaped leaves. It belongs to the Sterculiaceae or Cacao family of plants. Cocoa and chocolate are derived from the seeds of the tropical American tree, Theobroma cacao L. (Correll and Johnston 1996).

Like many of the South Texas endangered species, Ayenia limitaris' main threat is habitat destruction. This species once occurred in a subtropical riparian woodland that was found on the delta of the Rio Grande River. Today, less than 5% of this original habitat remains in small, isolated patches along fence rows, highway rights-of-way, canals, and ditch banks. Many activities have led to this, including conversion to agricultural fields, invasion of exotic grasses, herbicides, cattle grazing and stamping and over-collection are also many of this plants problems. (Correll and Johnston 1996; Texas Parks and Wildlife 2002b).

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Texas
State Range of  Ayenia limitaris
Habitat
  Found on terraces and floodplains in dense, subtropical woodlands in sandy, clay-loam soils of the Rio Grande Valley in the Brownsville area. (Correll and Johnston 1996; Texas Parks and Wildlife 2002b).

Distribution
  A small area in the Rio Grande Valley in Hidalgo County, Texas and Tamaulipas, Mexico. (Texas Parks and Wildlife 2002b)

Number Left
  Exists in the United States in only one population containing approximately 20 individuals in Hidalgo county, Texas. Also found in the state of Tamaulipas in Mexico. (Texas Parks and Wildlife 2002b)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
5/22/2003
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
2/4/1998
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Mexico *FR85 8/26/1988  
  Texas S1 2/20/1992  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Unknown.

Threats
  Agriculture
Small genetic pool
Habitat destruction due to development
Introduction of non-native pasture grasses
Herbicides used on pastures
Irrigation, flood control, dam construction, water pollution, water quality degradation
Human trampling, collection

Current Research Summary
  The San Antonio Botanical Garden currently has plants in containers and in a test plot. Seed is being stored but comes from the plants in the test plot and is therefore not part of the core collection. Germination studies have been conducted but results were poor.

Current Management Summary
  At the San Antonio Botanical Garden plants are maintained and monitored in a cold frame and in test plots.

Research Management Needs
  Seed needs to be collected and germination studies performed.

Ex Situ Needs
  Seeds need to be collected from the wild population and sent to the National Seed Storage Lab for long term storage.

References

Books (Single Authors)

Correll, D.S.; Johnston, M.C. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Renner: Texas Research Foundation. 1881p.

Everitt, J.H.; Drawe, D.L. 1993. Trees, shrubs and cacti of south Texas. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. 213p.

Vines, R.A. 1960. Trees, shrubs and woody vines of the southwest. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1104p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Texas Threatened and Endangered Plants--Profiles. Texas Parks and Wildlife. http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/nature/endang/plants/index.htm. Accessed: 2002.

(2002). Threatened and Endangered Species Profiles. Texas Parks and Wildlife. http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/publications/wildlife_habitat/species_profiles/plants/index.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Cristobal, C.L. 1960. Revision del genero Ayenia. Opera Lilloana. 4: 1-230.

Dorr, L.J.; Barnett, L.C. 1986. The identity of Nephropetalum (Sterculiaceae). Taxon. 35: 163-164.

USFWS. 1985. Review of plant taxa for listing as endangered or threatened species. Federal Register. 50, 188: 39526-39527.

USFWS. 1994. Determination of endangered status for the plants Ayenia limitaris (Texas ayenia) and Ambrosia cheiranthifolia (south Texas ambrosia). Federal Register. 59, 163: 43648-43652.

Reports

Damude, N.; Poole, J. 1990. Status report on Ayenia limitaris. Alburquerque, NM: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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