CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Platanthera holochila

Photographer:
Susan Harbin

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Platanthera holochila


Family: 
Orchidaceae  
Common Name: 
fringed orchid
Author: 
(Hillebr.) Kraenzl.
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
3517

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Platanthera holochilaenlarge
Photographer: Susan Harbin
Image Owner: Harold L. Lyon Arboretum


Platanthera holochila is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Nellie Sugii contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Platanthera holochila


Platanthera holochila is one of only three species of orchids endemic to Hawai`i. It is an erect herb whose long stems arise from underground tubers. Its pale green leaves are egg-shaped and greenish-yellow flowers occur on open spikes. Historically, it was known from the Alakai Swamp and Kaholuamano area and the Waihiawa Mountains on Kaua`i, the Ko`olau Mountains on O`ahu, scattered locations on Moloka`i, and various locations on Mau`i. In 1992, Hurricane Iniki devastated the Kauai populations and today, only 1 remaining individual survives in the Alakai Swamp. Platanthera holochila is facing rapid decline and is currently known from only 5 locations on Kaua`i, Moloka`i and Mau`i and presumed extinct on O`ahu.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Platanthera holochila
Habitat
  Growing on open or shaded sites on bog hummocks and in wet forest surrounding bogs, sometimes in wet forest not near bogs, and rarely in mesic forest and subalpine shrubland, 600 to 1,830 m. (Wagner et. al 1999; USFWS 1998)

Distribution
  Alakai Swamp, Kaua`i
Extinct on O`ahu
Kamakou Preserve, Moloka`i
Hanaula, Waikamoi and Kapunakea Preserves, Mau`i
(USFWS 1998)

Number Left
  3 sites (Mau`i, Moloka`i, Kaua`i)
5 populations (3 Mau`i, 1 Moloka`i, 1 Kaua`i)
less than 40 individuals (15-20 Mau`i, 20 Moloka`i, 1 Kaua`i)
(USFWS 1998, 2001)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
5/6/1997
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
10/10/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
9/1/1998

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii S1 E 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Little is known about the life history of this plant. Reproductive cycles, longevity, specific environmental requirements and limiting factors are unknown. (USFWS 1998)

Threats
  Habitat degradation
Ungulate and domestic animals
Alien plants
Overcollection
Stochastic events
Reduced reproductive vigor due to small population size
Invertebrates
(Recovery Plan 1998) and (USFWS 2001)

Current Research Summary
  Micropropagation (Harold L. Lyon Arboretum)
(Recovery Plan 1998) and (Nellie Sugii Pers. Comm. 2001)

Current Management Summary
  Fencing (Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife and The Nature Conservancy)
Monitoring has been done by National Tropical Botanical Garden and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS 1998)
In April, 2002, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service determined that a designation of critical habitat was prudent for this species. (USFWS 2002)

Research Management Needs
  Exclosures around unfenced populations
Removal of ungulates
Alien plant species removal
Invertebrate control
Reintroduction
(USFWS 1998)

Ex Situ Needs
  Propagation
Genetic studies
Plant biological and physiological studies
Seed banking
(USFWS1998)

References

Books (Single Authors)

Luer, C.A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 361p.

Wagner, W.L.; Bruegmann, M.M.; Herbst, D.R; Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press Honolulu.

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i--Revised Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. 1853p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Loope, L.L.; Medeiros, A.C. 1994. Impacts of biological invasions on the management and recovery of rare plants in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. In: Bowles, M.L.; Whelan, C., editors. Recovery and Restoration of Endangered Species. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. p 143-158.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Hawaiian Native Plant Genera. Gerald D. Carr, University of Hawaii Botany Department. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/natives.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Kores, P. 1979. A review of the literature on Hawaiian orchids. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society. 18, 3/5: 34-55.

MacCaughey, V. 1916. The orchids of Hawaii. Plant World. 19: 350-355.

USFWS. 1995. Proposed endangered or threatened status for fourteen plant taxa from the Hawaiian Islands. Federal Register. 60, 190: 53108-53124.

USFWS. 1996. Determination of endangered or threatened status for fourteen plant taxa from the Hawaiian Islands. Federal Register. 61, 198: 53108-53124.

USFWS. 2000. Determinations of Prudency and Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Islands of Maui and Kahoolawe, Hawaii. Federal Register. 65, 243: 143.

USFWS. 2000. Determinations of Whether Designation of Critical Habitat is Prudent for 81 Plants and Proposed Designations for 76 Plants From the Islands of Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii; [Proposed Rule]. Federal Register. 65, 216: 66807-66885.

USFWS. 2002. Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 102: 37108-37156.

USFWS. 2002. Revised Determinations of Prudency and Proposed Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Island of Molokai, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 66: 16492-16579.

USFWS. 2002. Revised Determinations of Prudency and Proposed Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species from the Islands of Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii. Federal Register. 67, 18: 3940-4098.

USFWS. 2002. Revised Determinations of Prudency and Proposed Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Islands of Maui and Kahoolawe. Federal Register. 67, 64: 15856-15987.

Walker, J.H. 1994. Intrepid trio (conservation of native Hawaiian orchids). American Horticulturist. 73: 38-41.

Wiesner, M.B. 1995. Natives at Risk: Prairie fringed orchids. American Horticulturist. 74: 11.

Reports

MISC. 2001. Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC), Pulling Together Initiative. 2002 Project Proposal. Submitted to the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. p.14.

USFWS. 1995. News Release: 42 Hawaiian Plants Proposed for Listing as Threatened, Endangered Species. Honolulu, HI: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service - Region 1. p.3.

USFWS. 1999. Recovery Plan for Multi-Island Plants. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.206 + appendices.

USFWS. 2001. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Species List. March 30, 2000. Honolulu: Unpublished. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.19.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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