CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Abies fraseri

Photographer:
Rob Nicholson

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Abies fraseri


Family: 
Pinaceae  
Common Names: 
Fraser fir, Southern balsam fir
Author: 
(Pursh) Poir.
Growth Habit: 
Tree
CPC Number: 
3

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Abies fraserienlarge
Photographer: Rob Nicholson

Abies fraserienlarge
Photographer: Rob Nicholson


Abies fraseri is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Irina Kadis contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Abies fraseri


The Fraser fir is endemic to high elevations in the southern Appalachian Mountains. It is named after John Fraser, the Scottish botanist/explorer who discovered it in the late 18th century. This coniferous evergreen tree grows from 30-80 ft. tall, around 12 inches in diameter, and has a narrow crown and shallow root system.

As one of the few trees to grow at high elevations, this species appears to play an important role in controlling erosion in southern watersheds by holding shallow soil to the steep wet slopes that it grows on. Unfortunately, in the past fifty years the number of mature, reproductive Fraser fir trees has declined by as much as 91% in areas where it naturally occurs. This decline is primarily attributed to the presence of an introduced insect, the balsam wooly adelgid (Dull et al. 1988), but other environmental factors, including acid rain, may also be a contributing problem.

Although the survival of this species in the wild is threatened, it is thriving in cultivation, where regular application of insecticides can control the balsam wooly adelgid. In fact, it has recently become a favorite in the Christmas tree world. The Fraser fir's natural shape, combined with its fragrant dark green foliage and long needle retention time have made it one of the most popular Christmas tree species nationwide. A 1993 report noted 2,500 North Carolina growers who planted 30,000 acres of Fraser fir, about 2,700 trees per acre. It has been recently designated 'The Cadillac of Christmas Trees' (Dirr 1998).

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Georgia
North Carolina
Tennessee
Virginia
West Virginia
State Range of  Abies fraseri
Habitat
  Fraser fir is adapted to a cool, moist climate of the 'microthermal rain forest' with average annual temperatures of about 45F and annual precipitation of 75 to 100 inches that is evenly distributed during the year (Beck 1990). Fog is a very important environmental factor adding considerably to precipitation, as it is present during more than half of the growing season.

Abies fraseri most commonly grows at elevations ranging from 5,500 to 6,684 feet (1,767 to 2037 m) on shallow, rocky soil that is acidic, with a very thin black soil horizon lying directly on the bedrock.

Distribution
  Abies fraseri has a disjunct (fragmented) distribution and is restricted to high elevations in the southern Appalachian mountains of western North Carolina, southwestern Virginia, and eastern Tennessee (Beck 1990).

Number Left
  Populations are located in western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia on the peaks of the seven highest mountains in that area. These mountains include Clingman's Dome, and the Black Mountains, (including Mount Mitchell, which is the highest mountain in the eastern U.S. at 6,684ft tall) in North Carolina; Roan Mountain in Tennessee; and Mount Rogers in the Blue Ridge Mountains of southwestern Virginia.

In these populations, anywhere from 44-95% of the reproductively mature Fraser fir is dead, but a large number of fir seedlings, not yet susceptible to the damaging effects of the balsam woolly adelgid, are growing in the now-exposed understory. (Dull et al. 1988) It remains to be seen if this new generation of firs will be able to survive long enough to reach reproductive age, which is around 15 years old.

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2
 
2/19/2009
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
SC
 
1/19/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  North Carolina S2 W 1/1/1999  
  Tennessee S1 T 11/19/2001  
  Virginia S1 E 11/19/2001  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  The spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains occur in an island-like distribution on the peaks of the seven highest mountain areas in southwestern Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina. These forests are thought to be relicts from the last period of glaciation, and contain a number of rare and endemic species. (Smith & Nicholas 1998) In terms of climate, the spruce-fir forest relates to areas such as Maine and Quebec, Canada. The main components of the spruce-fir forest are red spruce and Fraser fir. Other important species include yellow birch, mountain-ash, hobblebush, and blackberries. (McKinley 2001). Red squirrels are the primary consumers of seeds.

Frampton (1998) explains the relationship among the Appalachian firs as the following:
Fraser fir is closely related to the balsam fir. The most conspicuous trait that distinguishes these two species is the relative length on the cone scales and bracts. In Fraser fir, the bracts are much longer than the cone scales and curved downward. In balsam fir the bracts are much shorter, and fully enclosed within the cone scales.

In West Virginia and the Shenandoah National Park in northern Virginia a number of isolated balsam fir have been found with cones that have a relative length of bract to scale that is intermediate between Fraser and balsam fir. Fir in these populations are called intermediate or bracted balsam fir, and designated a variety of balsam fir (Abies balsamea var. phanerolepis Fern.).

Threats
  This fir is threatened with extinction in the wild in part because of an exotic insect, the balsam wooly adelgid, that first appeared in the southern Appalachians in 1957. Since it was first detected, the balsam wooly adelgid has spread rapidly, killing enormous numbers of Fraser fir (Smith and Nicholas 1998). The wooly adelgid attacks trees as they age, entering the trunk of a tree through fissures in its bark that develop and continue to expand as it ages. Trees often die 2 to 7 years after infestation. This kills reproductive adult trees and keeps young seedlings from reaching reproductive maturity, essentially stopping seed production for the species as a whole. Thus, if this cycle continues, the Fraser fir's reproductive potential in the wild may be lost (Campell 1996).

Air pollution in the form of ozone and acid precipitation may also be contributing to the decline of the spruce-fir forest where Fraser fir resides. In fact, eight out of ten days, Mount Mitchell is covered in clouds and fog that are sometimes nearly as acidic as vinegar (pH 2.7). These manmade stresses may cause a healthy tree to become weak and unable to fight off an insect attack (from the balsam woolly adelgid and others) that it could otherwise more easily resist.

Current Research Summary
  Allen, Kupfer, and Cairns are researching several aspects of high elevation forests, with one of their focuses being on the spatial patterns of mortality and regeneration following the introduction of the balsam woolly adelgid. (Allen and Kupfer 2000, 2001)

Professor Fred Hain (North Carolina State University) is trying to determine whether or not some Fraser fir are resistant to the adelgid and, if so, why. This resistance may potentially come in the form of thicker bark, or in the production of a substance called juvabione, which is similar to the adelgid's growth hormone, and keeps the adelgids from fully maturing (at least in the lab).

Professors Royce Woolsey and David Butcher (Western Carolina University) have been studying differences in the chemical composition of the seeds and foliage of Abies fraseri in an attempt to characterize the chemical differences between trees that makes some individuals or stands more resistant to attack by the balsam wooly adelgid.

Early studies of variation in morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics revealed that Fraser, intermediate and balsam fir are all part of a cline or gradual variation pattern. Not only do bract lengths decrease and cone scale lengths increase from south to north, but a host of other traits also change along this geographic gradient. (Robinson and Thor 1969, Thor 1968, Thor and Barnett 1974, Zavarin and Snajberk 1972)

Clark et al. (2000) performed a genetic study using chloroplast microsatellites to determine if Abies fraseri is genetically distinct from the closely related taxa, Abies balsamea and Abies balsamea var. phanerolepis. Results showed a clear genetic divergence among these three eastern North American species of Fir. This study also found relatively high levels of genetic variation for all three species.

Permanent research plots were set up in a number of Fraser fir populations in the early 1960's as concern about the impacts of the balsam woolly adelgid on the species were raised. Busing and Clebsch (1988) had plots on Clingman's Dome in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and North Carolina State University also had plots from 1966-1978.

Research on Mt. Mitchell by the University of Michigan and Forest Experimental Station found that the mortality of Fraser fir on Mt. Mitchell from 1955 to 1965 was estimated at over 1.5 million trees, which was about 82-98% of the overstory.

"Attempts to use the tree as an ornamental at low elevations have not been successful." (Harrar 1962) "Being occasionally planted in the parks and gardens of the northern states and Europe, it does not live long, suffering from hot, dry weather." (Sargent 1965) At the Arnold Arboretum in Boston, Fraser fir suffered yearly damage from the hot and dry summer conditions as well as from spider mite infestations. Despite these dire early predictions, this species is thriving in the Christmas tree trade, and a number of papers have been published on propagation methods. These studies includes propagation from seed, grafting, air layering, stem cutting, and tissue culture (micropropagation). (Bruck 1983, Wise et al. 1985, Saravitz 1990, Bryan 1991, Blazich and Hinesley 1994, Bergmann 1997, Rajbhandari and Stomp 1997, Hinesley et al. 1998, Hinesely et al. 2000)

A great deal of work has also been done in the Christmas tree industry on ways to increase the marketability of the Fraser fir as a Christmas tree. (Hinesley & Blankenship 1991a & 1991b, Hinesley et al. 1992, Hinesley & Snelling 1992, Hinesley & Snelling 1995, Hinesley & Snelling 1997, Hinesley et al. 2000)

Current Management Summary
  The National Park Service made unsuccessful attempts to control the balsam wooly adelgid at Clingman's Dome in Tennessee (Dirr 1998). Various methods of control for the balsam woolly adelgid have been attempted, with little practical success. The only truly successful method has been to coat each limb of each tree with a mild soap, which effectively dehydrates the adelgids. This method was employed for a number of years on Clingman's dome, but was finally given up due to its high cost and low benefit.

Research Management Needs
  Search for potential methods of adelgid control: The long-term consequences of balsam woolly adelgid attack are unknown. Currently, openings created by the adelgid-caused death of mature firs contain a number of fir seedlings but, unless new methods of adelgid control are found, these trees may not survive to maturity. This makes the future status of Fraser fir in natural stands extremely uncertain.

Monitor and survey all populations: It appears as though certain stands and individual trees may have a better resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid. The location of potentially resistant trees is important in further research into resistance.

Continue research on adelgid resistance: It is important to know how and why some individual Fraser fir trees are able to combat the adelgid while others die.

Ex Situ Needs
  Seeds are being collected for gene preservation in the hopes that a future solution to the adelgid problem will be discovered, and that the firs may be reintroduced into their native habitats. This practice needs to be coordinated to ensure that as much genetic variation is represented in the seed collection as possible without harm to the species as a whole.

References

Books (Single Authors)

1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148p.

1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 877p.

1997. Flora of North America North of Mexico.

1998. The world list of threatened trees. Cambridge, UK: World Conservation Press.

Bailey, L.H.; Bailey, E.Z. 1976. Hortus Third---A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. 1290p.

Chester, E.W.; Wofford, B.E.; Kral, R.; DeSelm, H.R.; Evans, A.M. 1993. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants. Clarksville, Tennessee: Austin Peay State University.

Chester, E.W.; Wofford, B.E.; Kral, R.D. 1997. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants: angiosperms: dicots: Miscellaneous Publication Number 13. Clarksville, Tennessee: The Center for Field Biology, Austin Peay State University.

Committee, Flora of North America Editorial. 1993. Flora of North America North of Mexico. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dirr, M.A. 1998. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Champaign, Illinois: Stipes Publishing L. L. C.

Duncan, W.H.; Duncan, M.B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322p.

Gleason, H.A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York, NY: Hafner Press. 1732p.

Grimm, W.C. 1983. The Illustrated Book of Trees. Stackpole Books.

Harrar, E.S.; Harrar, J.G. 1962. Guide to Southern Trees. New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.

Harvill, A.M., Jr ; Bradley, T.R.; Stevens, C.E.; Wiebolt, T.F.; Ware, D.M.E.; Ogle, D.W.; Ramsey, G.W.; Fleming, G.P. 1992. Atlas of the Virginia Flora. Farmville, Virginia: Virginia Botanical Associates.

Hay, R.L.; Christopher, E. 1981. Final contract report for regional chief scientist, Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service on stem morphology and physiology of Fraser fir in relation to balsam woolly aphid attack preference. Knoxville, TN: Dept. of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries, The University of Tennessee. v, 67, 6 leavesp.

Hay, R.L.; Eagar, C.C.; Johnson, K.D. 1978. Fraser fir in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park: its demise by the balsam woolly aphid (Adelges piceae ratz.). Knoxville, TN: Dept. of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Tennessee. 125p.

Johnson, K.D.; Hay, R.L. 1980. Fraser fir and the balsam woolly aphid : a problem analysis. Southern Appalachian Research - Resource Management Cooperative. 62p.

Lui, T-S. 1971. A monograph of the genus Abies. Taipei, Taiwan, China: National Taiwan University, College of Agriculture, Department of Forestry. 608p.

Nicholas, N.S.; White, P.S. 1985. The effect of balsam woolly aphid infestation on fuel levels in spruce-fir forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Resources Management Report SER-74. 24. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Research.

Ogle, D.W. 1991. Virginia's endangered species: Proceedings of a symposium. Blacksburg, VA: McDonald and Woodward Publishing Co.

Pursh. 1817. EncyclopTdie MTthodique, Botanique 5: 35.

Radford, A.E.; Ahles, H.E.; Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1183p.

Rehder, A. 1940. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs Hardy in North America. New York, NY: The Macmillan Co.

Sargent, C.S. 1965. Manual of the Trees of North America. Dover Publications: New York, NY.

Service, USDA Forest. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, D.C: United States Department of Agrictulture, Forest Service.

White, P.S. 1984. The southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem: its biology and threats: Research/Resource Management Report SER-71. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service.

Books (Sections)

DeSelm, H.R.; Boner, R.R. 1984. Understory changes in spruce-fir during the first 16-20 years following the death of fir. In: White, P.S., editor. The southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem: its biology and threats. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Research/Resources Management Report SER-71. p 268.

Eager, C. 1984. Review of the biology and ecology of the balsam woolly aphid in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. In: White, P.S., editor. The southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem: its biology and threats. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Research/Resources Management Report SER-71. p 268.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Vascular Cryptogams through Gymnosperms. Flora of North America North of Mexico. p 2: i--xvi, 1--475.

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Nicholas, N.S.; Eager, C.; Peine, J.D. 1999. Threatened ecosystem: High elevation spruce-fir forest. In: Peine, J.D., editor. Ecosystem management for sustainability. CRC Press, Lewis Publishers. Boca Raton, FL.

Rheinhardt, R.D. 1984. Comparative study of composition and distribution patterns of subalpine forests in the Balsam Mountains of southwest Virginia and the Great Smoky Mountains: Resources Management Report SER-71. In: White, P.S., editor. The Southern Appalachian Spruce-Fir Ecosystem: Its Biology and Threats. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Research. p 268.

Saunders, P.R. 1984. Recreational impacts in the southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem: Resources Management Report SER-71. In: White, P.S., editor. The Southern Appalachian Spruce-Fir Ecosystem: Its Biology and Threats. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service,; Research. p 268.

Conference Proceedings

Pauley, E. F. Regeneration patterns of Fraser fir on Mt. Collins, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 15th annual scientific research meeting; May 25-26, 1989; Gatlinburg, TN. In: Wood, J. D., Jr., editor. 1989. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office.

Witter, J.A. Balsam woolly adelgid and spruce-fir interactions in the southern Appalachian mountains. Society of American Foresters national convention, Oct. 16-19, 1988; Rochester, NY. 1988. p 92-96.

Zedaker, S.M.; Nicholas, N.S.; Eagar, C.; White, P.S.; Burke, T.E. Stand characteristics associated with potential decline of spruce-fir forests in the southern Appalachians. U.S./F.R.G. research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollution on the spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States and the Federal Republic ofGermany. Oct. 19-23, 1987; Burlington, Vermont. 1988.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Kentucky's endangered plants: Price's Potato Bean. Eastern Kentucky University. http://www.biology.eku.edu/KOS/kyflorafauna.html. Accessed: 2002.

McKinley, C.R. Fraser Fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.). North Carolina State University for the National Christmas Tree Association. http://www.realchristmastrees.org/treetype/fraser.html. Accessed: 2002.

On-line access to University of North Carolina's Herbarium: Gymnosperms of the Southeastern US. [Web site] North Carolina Botanical Network (BOTNET). http://www.ibiblio.org/botnet/flora/indexstart.html. Accessed: 2002.

Rook, E.S. (1998). Flora, fauna, earth, and sky...The natural history of the northwoods. [Web site] http://www.rook.org/earl/bwca/nature/trees/abiesbal.html. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles



2002. Propagation Protocol Database.

Adams D.A ; Hammond J.S. 1991. Changes in Forest Vegetation Bird and Small Mammal Populations at Mount Mitchell North Carolina USA 1959-62 And 1985. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 107, 1: 3-12.

Adams H.S ; Stephenson S.L; Blasing T.J; Duvick D.N. 1985. Growth-Trend Declines of Spruce And Fir in Mid-Appalachian Subalpine Forests. Source. Environmental & Experimental Botany. 25, 4: 315-326.

Adams H.S.; Stephenson S.L. 1991. High Elevation Coniferous Forests in Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science. 42, 4: 391-399.

Adkins, C.R.; Hinesley, L.E.; Blazich, F.A. 1984. Role of Stratification Temperature and Light in Fraser Fir Abies-Fraseri Germination. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 14, 1: 88-93.

Aldrich, R.C.; Drooz, A.T. 1967. Estimated Fraser fir mortality and balsam woolly aphid infestation trend using aerial color photography. Forest Science. 13: 300-313.

Allen, T.R.; Kupfer, J.A. 2000. Application of spherical statistics to change vector analysis of Landsat data: Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. Remote Sensing of Environment. 74, 3: 482-493.

Allen, T.R.; Kupfer, J.A. 2001. Spectral response and spatial pattern of Fraser fir mortality and regeneration, Great Smoky Mountains. In review: Plant Ecology. 156: 59-74.

Alsop, F.J.; Laughlin, T.F. 1991. Changes In the spruce-fir Avifauna of Mt. Guyot Tennessee 1967-1985. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science. 66, 4: 208-210.

Amman, G.D. 1966. Some new infestations of the balsam woolly aphid in North Carolina, with possible modes of dispersal. Journal of Economic Entomology. 59: 508-511.

Amman, G.D. 1970. Phenomena of Adelges piceae populations (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) in North Carolina. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 63: 1727-1734.

Amman, G.D.; Speers, C.F. 1965. Balsam woolly aphid in the southern Appalachians. Journal of Forestry. 63, 1: 18-20.

Arthur, F.H.; Hain, F.P. 1984. Seasonal history of the balsam woolly Adelgid Homoptera Adelgidae in natural stands and plantations of Fraser fir Abies-fraseri. Journal of Economic Entomology. 77, 5: 1154-1158.

Arthur, F.H.; Hain, F.P. 1985. Development of wound tissue in the bark of Fraser fir Abies-fraseri and its relation to injury by the balsam woolly Adelgid Adelges-piceae. Journal of Entomological Science. 20, 1: 129-136.

Arthur, F.H.; Hain, F.P. 1985. Effect of selected chemicals on non-suberized impervious tissue formation in Fraser fir Abies-fraseri. Journal of Entomological Science. 20, 3: 305-311.

Arthur, F.H.; Hain, F.P. 1986. Water potential of Fraser fir Abies-fraseri infested with balsam woolly Adelgid Adelges-piceae Homoptera Adelgidae. Environmental Entomology. 15, 4: 911-913.

Arthur, F.H.; Hain, F.P. 1987. Influence of balsam woolly Adelgid Homoptera Adelgidae on Monoterpenes found in bark and sapwood of Fraser fir. Environmental Entomology. 16, 3: 712-715.

Auckland, L.D.; Johnston, J.S.; Price, H.J.; Bridgwater, F.E. 2001. Stability of nuclear DNA content among divergent and isolated populations of Fraser fir. Canadian Journal of Botany. 79: 1375-1378.

Barker, M.; Van Miegroet, H.; Nicholas, N.S.; Creed, I.F. 2002. Variation in overstory nitrogen uptake in a small, high-elevation southern Appalachian spruce-fir watershed. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 32: 1741-1752.

Bills, G.F. 1986. Distribution of Lactarius in the high-elevation forests of the Southern Appalachians USA. Mycologia. 78, 1: 80-85.

Blazich, F.A.; Hinesley, L.E. 1994. Propagation of Fraser Fir. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 12, 2: 112-117.

Bondietti, E.A.; Momoshima, N.; Shortle, W.C.; Smith, K.T. 1990. A Historical Perspective on Divalent Cation Trends in Red Spruce Stemwood and the Hypothetical Relationship to Acidic Deposition. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere. 20, 12: 1850-1858.

Bowman, J.M.; Braxton, M.S.; Churchill, M.A.; Hellie, J.D.; Starrett, S.J.; Causby, G.Y.; Ellis, D.J.; Ensley, S.D.; Maness, S.J.; Meyer, C.D.; Sellers, J.R.; Hua, Y.; Woosley, R.S.; Butcher, D.J. 1997. Extraction method for the isolation of terpenes from plant tissue and subsequent determination by gas chromatography. Microchemical Journal. 56, 1: 10-18.

Boyne, J.V.; Hain, F.P. 1983. Effects of constant temperature relative humidity and simulated rainfall on development and survival of the spruce spider mite Oligonychus-Ununguis. Canadian Entomologist. 115, 1: 93-106.

Brewer, J.F.; Hinesley, L.E.; Snelling, L.K. 1992. Foliage Attributes for Current Year Shoots of Fraser Fir. Hortscience. 27, 8: 920-925.

Brown, D.M. 1941. Vegetation of Roan Mountain: a phytosociological and successional study. Ecological Monographs. 11, 1: 61-97.

Bruck, R.I. 1989. Survey of diseases and insects of Fraser fir and Red spruce in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 19, 7: 389-398.

Bruck, R.I.; Kenerley, C.M. 1983. Effects of metalaxyl on Phytophthora cinnamomi root rot of Abies fraseri. Plant Disease. 67, 6: 688-690.

Bruck, R.I.; Robarge, W.P. 1988. Change in forest structure in the boreal montane ecosystem of Mount Mitchell North Carolina USA. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 18, 6: 357-366.

Bryan, J.A.; Seiler, J.R. 1991. Accelerating Fraser Fir Seedling Growth with Benzylaminopurine Sprays. Hortscience. 26, 4: 389-390.

Bryant, K.N.; Fowlkes, A.J.; Mustafa, S.F.; Oneil, B.J.; Osterman, A.C.; Smith, T.M.; Shepard, M.R.; Woosley, R.S.; Butcher, D.J. 1997. Determination of aluminum, calcium, and magnesium in Fraser fir, balsam fir, and red spruce foliage and soil from the southern and middle Appalachians. Microchemical Journal. 56, 3: 382-392.

Busing, R.T. 1996. Estimation of tree replacement patterns in an Appalachian Picea-Abies forest. Journal of Vegetation Science. 7, 5: 685-694.

Busing, R.T.; Clebsch, E.E.C. 1988. Fraser fir mortality and the dynamics of a Great Smoky Mountains fir-spruce stand. Castanea. 53: 177-182.

Busing, R.T.; Clebsch, E.E.C.; Eagar, C.; Pauley, E.F. 1988. Two decades of change in a Great Smoky Mountains spruce-fir forest. Bulletin Torrey Botanic Club. 115, 1: 25-31.

Busing, R.T.; Pauley, E.F. 1994. Mortality Trends in a Southern Appalachian Red Spruce Population. Forest Ecology and Management. 64, 1: 41-45.

Busing, R.T.; White, P.S.; Mackenzie, M.D. 1993. Gradient Analysis of Old Spruce-Fir Forests of the Great Smoky Mountains Circa 1935. Canadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique. 71, 7: 951-958.

Cain, S.A. 1931. Ecological studies of the vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. Botanical Gazette. 91: 22-41.

Campbell, F.T. 1996. The Invasion of the Exotics. Endangered Species Bulletin. 21: 12-13.

Cazell, B.N.; Seiler, J.R. 1992. Intermittent short days and chilling, and benzylaminopurine affect the growth and morphology of Fraser fir seedlings. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 10, 4: 205-207.

Clark, C.M.; Wentworth, T.R.; O'Malley, D.M. 2000. Genetic discontinuity revealed by chloroplast microsatellites in eastern North American Abies (Pinaceae). American Journal of Botany. 87, 6: 774-782.

Cogbill, C.V.; White, P.S. 1991. The latitude-elevation relationship for spruce-fir forest and treeline along the Appalachian mountain chain. Vegetatio. 94, 2: 153-175.

Copes, D.L. 1992. Effects of Long-Term Pruning, Meristem Origin, and Branch Order on the Rooting of Douglas-Fir Stem Cuttings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere. 22, 12: 1888-1894.

Cordero, R.A. 1999. Ecophysiology of Cecropia schreberiana saplings in two wind regimes in an elfin cloud forest: growth, gas exchange, architecture and stem biomechanics. Tree Physiology. 19, 3: 153-163.

Crandall, D.L. 1958. Ground vegetation patterns of the spruce-fir area of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Ecological Monographs. 28, 4: 337-360.

Dale, V.H.; Gardner, R.H.; Deangelis, D.L.; Eagar, C.C.; Webb, J.W. 1991. Elevation-Mediated Effects of Balsam Woolly Adelgid on Southern Appalachian Spruce-Fir Forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere. 21, 11: 1639-1648.

Davis, J.H., Jr. 1930. Vegetation of the Black Mountains of North Carolina: an ecological study. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. May: 291-319.

Dehayes, D.H. 1981. Genetic variation in susceptibility of Abies-balsamea to Mindarus-Abietinus. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 11, 1: 30-35.

Delcourt, P.A.; Delcourt, H.R. 1998. Paleoecological insights on conservation of biodiversity: A focus on species, ecosystems, and landscapes. Ecological Applications. 8, 4: 921-934.

Diebel, K.E.; Feret, P.P. 1991. Isozyme Variation within the Fraser Fir (Abies-Fraseri (Pursh) Poir) Population on Mount Rogers, Virginia - Lack of Microgeographic Differentiation. Silvae Genetica. 40, 2: 79-85.

Fedde, G.F. 1973. Impact of the balsam woolly aphid (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) on cones and seed produced by infested Fraser Fir. Canadian Entomologist. 105, 5: 673-680.

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Zygmont, N.; Schwarz, O.J. 1987. Invitro Adventitious Bud Formation on Cultured Embryos of Abies fraseri. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. 23, 3: A49-A49.

Magazine Articles

2000. Rare Sub-Species of Balsam Fir Threatened. West Virginia Highlands Conservancy:

Reports

1996. Inventory and Monitoring Program 1996: Forest Insects and Diseases in Great Smoky Mountains National park, Tennessee and North Carolina. Fort Collins, Colorado: National Park Service, Natural Resource Information Division.

2001. America's Least Wanted: Alien Species Invasions of U.S. Ecosystem--Balsam wooly adelgid. The Nature Conservancy: A NatureServe Publication.

Amman, Gene D.; Talerico, Robert L. 1967. Symptoms of infestation by the balsam woolly aphid displayed by Fraser fir and bracted balsam fir. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Research Note SE-85. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. p.7.

Dull, C.W.; Ward, J.D.; Brown, H.D.; Ryan, G.W.; Clerke, W.H.; Uhler, R.J. 1988. Evalutation of spruce and fir mortality in the southern Appalachian Mountains. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Regions.

Harmon, M.E. 1981. Fire history of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park--1940 to 1979. Gatlinburg, TN: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Southeast Region, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. p.39. Research/Resources Management Report No. 46.

Hastings, F.L.; Barry, P.J.; Ragenovich, R. 1979. Laboratory screening and field bioassays of insecticides for controlling the balsam woolly adelgid in southern Appalachia. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Research Note SE-279. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. p.3.

Holmes, J.S. 1911. Forest conditions in western North Carolina. Raleigh, NC: The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey Bulletin 23. North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. p.116.

Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized): Agriculture Handbook No. 541. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Forest Service. p.375.

Reed, Franklin W. 1905. Examination of a forest tract in western North Carolina. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Bureau of Forestry. p.32. Bulletin 60.

Williams, W.K. 1958. Fraser fir as a Christmas tree. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service in cooperation with the Extension Service. p.9.

Theses

Agmata, Antonia. 1989. Seed quality of picea rubens sarg., Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., and Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. in declining spruce-fir forests of Eastern North America. [Ph.D. Thesis]: Mississippi State University. 168p.

Arnold, Roger James. 1993. Variation, Genetics, Selection, and Valuation of Fraser Fir Christmas Trees. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 157p.

Arthur, Franklin Hall. 1985. Physiological Characteristics of Fraser Fir in Relation to Mortality caused by the Balsam Woolly Adelgid. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 135p.

Boner, R.R. 1979. Effects of Fraser fir death on population dynamics in southern Appalachian boreal ecosystems. [M.S. Thesis]: University of Tennessee. Knoxville, TN. 105p.

Brooks, John Manson. 1999. A comparison of the volatile organic compounds in the seeds and foliage of the Fraser fir (Abies fraseri). [M.S. Thesis]: Western Carolina University. viii, 105 leavesp.

Buscher, Kelly R. 1998. The effect of Abies fraseri mortality on Rugelia nudicaulis populations in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. [Honors essay]: University of North Carolina. Chapel Hill, NC.

Carlow, Samantha Jean. 1997. A comparison of volatile compound concentrations in the foliage of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and fraser fir (Abies fraseri). [M.S. Thesis]: Western Carolina University. viii, 75 leavesp.

Dickey, Frank Ethan. 1999. Identification of volatile organic compounds in Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) seeds. [M.S. Thesis]: Western Carolina University. viii, 89 leavesp.

Diebel, Kenneth Edward. 1989. Isozyme Variation within the Fraser Fir Population on Mt. Rogers, Virginia. [Ph.D. Thesis]: Virginia Polytechnoc Institute and State University. 134p.

Eagar, C. C. 1978. Distribution and characteristics of balsam woolly aphid infestations in the Great Smoky Mountains. [M.S. Thesis]: University of Tennessee. Knoxville, TN. 72p.

Goelz, Jeffery Christopher Glenn. 1993. Relationships Between Long-Term Tree Growth Trends and Anthropogenic Factors. [Ph.D. Thesis]: University of Minnesota. 154p.

Guevin, Todd George. 1996. Somatic Embryogenesis in Abies fraseri and Abies balsamea and the Role of Nitrogen and Osmoticum in Somatic Embryo Maturation. [Ph.D. Thesis]: Rutgers The State University of New Jersey. Newark, NJ. 114p.

Hockman, Joseph N. 1986. Evaluating the nutritional status of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] Christmas trees using foliar analysis and DRIS application. [M.S. Thesis]: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 112p.

Hollingsworth, Robert Grove. 1990. Influence of the Balsam Wooly Adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) on Fraser Fir Growth, Bark Structure, and Abnormal Wood Production. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 126p.

Johnson, K.D. 1977. Balsam woolly aphid infestation of Fraser fir in the Great Smoky Mountains. [M.S. Thesis]: University of Tennessee. Knoxville, TN. 64p.

Keller, Stephen Michael. 1980. Growth of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir) in relation to varying nutrient and weed control treatments. [M.S. Thesis]: Ohio State University. 95p.

Kenerly, Charles Miller. 1983. Epidemiology and control of Phytophthora cinnamomi root rot of Abies fraseri. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 100p.

Li, Bailian. 1985. Geographic variation study of Fraser fir (Abies Fraseri (Pursh) Poir.). [M.S. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 40p.

Mackenzie, Mark David. 1993. The Vegetation of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Past, Present, and Future. [Ph.D. Thesis]: The University of Tennessee. 185p.

Mangini, Alexander C, Jr. 1988. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) as Predators of the Spruce Spider MIte, Oligonychus Ununguis (Jacobi) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), on Fraser Fir in Western North Caolina: The Influence of Temperature, Vapor Pressure Deficit and Ground Cover. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 144p.

Miller, Norman Frederick. 1982. Factors affecting vegetative propagation of Abies fraseri by stem cuttings. [M.S. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 65p.

Mills, Edward Dean. 1985. Nest distribution of birds in Christmas tree plantations of Abies fraseri and Pinus strobus in Watauga County, North Carolina : a thesis. [M.S. Thesis]: Appalachian State University. 61p.

Minogue, Patrick Joseph. 1981. Nitrogen source, acidity, and seed size effects on the growth of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir.) in flowing nutrient solution. [M.S. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 65p.

Mitcham-Butler, Elizabeth Jeanne. 1986. Soluble carbohydrates and postharvest needle retention in Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) as affected by harvest date and postharvest storage condition. [M.S. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 67p.

Nicholas, N.S. 1992. Stand structure, growth, and mortality in southern Appalachian spruce-fir. [Ph.D. Thesis]: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg, VA. 176p.

O'Reilly, Siobhan Eileen. 1997. Distribution, dispersal, and host response to the rosette bud mite, Trisetacus fraseri amrine (acari: phtyoptidae), an eriophyoid pest of frasier fir, Abies fraseri (pursh) poiret. [M.S. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. vii, 78 leavesp.

Rajbhandari, Nirmala. 1995. Manipulation of inorganic and organic media constituents and phytohormones for optimizing growth and development of duckweed (Lemna gibba) and fraser fir (Abies fraseri) in vitro. [M.S. Thesis]: North Carolina State University.

Roberts, Billy Warren. 1985. The role of calcium and magnesium in the growth of Abies fraseri. [M.S. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 102p.

Ross, Rosanne Kreml. 1988. Patterns of allelic variation in natural populations of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 119p.

Saravitz, Carole Haemmerle. 1990. In vitro propagation of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) from embryonic explants. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 99p.

Saunders, Paul Richard. 1979. The vegetational impact of human disturbance on the spruce-fir forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Duke University. 177p.

Shafer, Steven Ray. 1983. The Influence of Simulated Acidic Rain on Root-Infecting Fungi. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 140p.

Smith, G.F. 1997. Southern Appalachian fir and fir-spruce forest community changes following balsam woolly adelgid infestation. [M.S. Thesis]: University of Tennessee. Knoxville, TN. 128p.

Sullivan, Joseph Hearst. 1985. Segregation of Abies fraseri and Picea rubens along an Elevational Transect. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 135p.

Sun, Ying-Hsuan. 1993. Micropropagation and biolistic transformation of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) buds. [M.S. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 89p.

Telewski, Frank William. 1983. On the Mechanism of Thigmomorphogenesis in Conifers. [Ph.D. Thesis]: Wake Forest University. 187p.

Tyszko, Piotr Bohdan. 1991. Laboratory and Field Ecophysiological Studies on the Impact of Air Pollution on Red Spruce and Fraser Fir. [Ph.D. Thesis]: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 144p.

Warren, Stuart Lynn. 1986. Plantation Management: Its Influence on Soil Fertility, Herbaceous Vegetation and Growth of Fraser Fir and Norway Spruce. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 171p.

Williams, Darrel Leon. 1989. The Radiative Transfer Characteristics of Spruce (Picea spp.): Implications Relative to the Canopy Microclimate. [Ph.D. Thesis]: University of Maryland College Park. 130p.

Wise, Farrell C. 1985. Development of systems for vegetative propagation of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) poir.] by stem cuttings. [Ph.D. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 118p.

Zhang, J. 1994. Juvabione related compounds in the host insect interaction between Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret) and balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae [Ratzeburg]), Homoptera: Adelgidae). [M.S. Thesis]: North Carolina State University. 116p.

Zygmont, Nancy J. 1987. Effects of cytokinins and an auxin on organogenesis in vitro of fraser fir: (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.). [M.S. Thesis]: University of Tennessee. Knoxville, TN. 71p.


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