CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Lobelia boykinii

Photographer:
Marj Boyer

Heading for profile page
CPC Home Join now
About CPC
CPC National Collection
Conservation Directory Resources
Invasive Plant Species Plant News
Plant Links Participating Institutions
Contribute
Search CPC
Search    Alphabetical List    Reference Finder    CPC Home


CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Lobelia boykinii


Family: 
Campanulaceae  
Common Name: 
Boykin's lobelia
Author: 
Torr. & Gray
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
2646

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


Profile Links
 ITIS
 Tropicos
 PLANTS
 Fish & WildLife

Lobelia boykiniienlarge
Photographer: Marj Boyer
Image Owner: North Carolina Natural Heritage Program


Lobelia boykinii is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 

 
Lobelia boykinii


Boykin's lobelia is a semi-aquatic perennial herb that grows to 3 feet in swamps and cypress ponds from the coastal plain of Delaware to Florida (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). The stem is hollow, 40-85 cm. tall and has few if any branches. The lower portion is often immersed in water, at least seasonally. Leaves are alternate and needle-like. It produces blue to white flowers from May to July and is the only Lobelia that possesses rhizomes. It grows to about 5-8.5 dm high and the long needle-like leaves often fall before the plant flowers (Bates 1996). It is an obligate outcrosser and the regulation of seed set can differ between sites (Bates 1996). Boykin's lobelia is critically imperiled throughout its entire range.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Alabama
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Mississippi
New Hampshire
New Jersey
North Carolina
South Carolina
State Range of  Lobelia boykinii
Habitat
  Wet habitats, primarily in the south central coastal plain and sandhills region of NC including: cypress ponds, Carolina bays, depression ponds, and meadows (Bates 1996).

Distribution
  Southern Delaware to Florida with a single disjunct population found in New Hampshire. (Bates 1996)

Number Left
  67 known populations. Known to grow in five Carolina bays in NC. (Bates 1996)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G2G3
 
3/9/2009
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
SC
 
1/19/1996
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Alabama S1S2 8/28/1991  
  Delaware SX 1/26/1988  
  Florida S1 N 2/14/1984  
  Georgia S2/S3 7/13/1995  
  Mississippi S1  
  New Jersey S1 E 9/6/1989  
  North Carolina S1 C  
  South Carolina S? 1/14/1986  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  L. boykinii is an obligate outcrosser that relies on insect pollinators, primarily bees (hymenopterans), for successful fertilization (Bates 1996).
Many factors seem to regulate seed production. These include differences herbivory, fungal infection, and insect pollination.
Flowering is dependent upon fluctuating water levels. (Bates 1996)

Threats
  Ditches and plow lines
Vehicles
Foot traffic
Land conversion
Herbivory (deer and rabbit)
Fungal attack (Altenaria and Botrytis cinerea)
(Bates 1996)

Current Research Summary
  Reproductive biology conducted by graduate student Moni Bates (1996).
Population dynamic models and L. boykinii research being conducted at University of North Carolina at Greensboro. (Lacey et al. 2001)

Current Management Summary
  Active management/management research is being carried out in three North Carolina Nature Conservancy-owned Carolina bays.

Research Management Needs
  Protect existing populations and surrounding areas from development.
Develop and implement management regimes that take into consideration the flowering phenology of each population.

Ex Situ Needs
  Seed collection from all extant populations

References

Books (Single Authors)

Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida State University Press. 605p.

Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. 1632p.

Gleason, H.A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York, NY: Hafner Press. 1732p.

Gleason, H.A.; Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Bronx: The New York Botanical Garden.

Godfrey, R.K.; Wooten, J.W. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Athens: University Georgia Press. 933p.

Radford, A.E.; Ahles, H.E.; Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1183p.

Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. New York, NY: Hafner Publishing Company. 1505p.

Tatnall, R.R. 1946. Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore. The Society of Natural History of Delaware. 313p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Conference Proceedings

Royo, A.A.; Bates, R.C.; Herr, D.; Lacey, E.P. Demographic modeling of Lobelia boykinii, a rare plant species endemic to Carolina Bays. Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of America; 2-6 August, 1998; Baltimore, MD. 1998.

Electronic Sources

(2002). New York Botanical Garden--The Virtual Herbarium. [Searchable Web site] New York Botanical Garden. Fordham Road Bronx, New York. http://scisun.nybg.org:8890/searchdb/owa/wwwspecimen.searchform. Accessed: 2002.

NatureServe. (2008). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. [Internet].Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed: (June 17, 2008).

Journal Articles

Clark, J.R.; Pence, V.C. 1999. In Vitro Propagation of Lobelia boykinii, a Rare Wetland Species. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. 35, 3 Part II: 1105.

Lacey, E.P.; Royo, A.; Bates, R. 2001. The Role of Population Dynamic Models in Biogeographic Studies: An Illustration from a Study of Lobelia boykinii, a Rare Species Endemic to the Carolina Bays. Castanea : the journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Club. 66, 1/2: 115-125.

Reports

Sutter, R.D.; Boyer, M. 1994. The seed bank of three rare species in southeastern pond cypress savannas: Rhexia aristosa, Lobelia boykinii, and Oxypolis canbyii. Chapel Hill, NC: Unpublished report. Southeast Regional Office of the Nature Conservancy.

Sutter, R.D.; Frantz, V.; McCarthy, K.A. 1987. Atlas of rare and endangered plant species in North Carolina. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Dept. Agriculture, Plant Protection Section, Conservation Program. p.174.

Theses

Bates, R.M. 1996. The reproductive biology of Lobelia boykinii. [M.S. Thesis]: University of North Carolina. Greensboro.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
California
Oregon
Washington
Idaho
Nevada
Arizona
Utah
Montana
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Oklahoma
Texas
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
Arkansas
Louisiana
Wisconsin
Illinois
Michigan
Michigan
Indiana
Ohio
Kentucky
Tennessee
Mississippi
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
South Carolina
North Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
New Jersey
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Vermont
New Hampshire
Maine
New York
New York
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii