CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Ilex collina

Photographer:
Rob Nicholson

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Ilex collina


Family: 
Aquifoliaceae  
Common Name: 
Long-stalked Holly
Author: 
Alexander
Growth Habit: 
Tree, Shrub
CPC Number: 
2306

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Ilex collinaenlarge
Photographer: Rob Nicholson
Image Owner: The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University

Ilex collinaenlarge
Photographer: Rob Nicholson
Image Owner: The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University


Ilex collina is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Irina Kadis contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Ilex collina


Ilex collina, a long-stalked holly, is a deciduous shrub of great ornamental potential. It is a multi-stemmed shrub growing to 10 feet, with large berries that range in color from dark scarlet-red to orange and yellow (Small 1933, Strausbaugh and Core 1978, Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

The nomenclatural status of I. collina has changed over the years. It was proposed as a distinct species by E. J. Alexander in 1941. He listed the characters that make I. collina different from I. longipes Chapm. (Brooks 1940) and stated that his new species was related to I. montana Torrey & Gray. Ten years later, Woods (1951) pointed to the affinity of I. collina with I. verticillata (L.) Gray. He described the range of I. collina: from Randolph Co., WV to Smythe Co., VA. In 1957 (Edwin), it was found that the Ilex species clearly showed that there was no significant difference between I. collina and I. longipes and therefore I. collina was reduced to the synonym of I. Longipes. There is still much doubt regarding the taxonomic status of this species.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  North Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia
State Range of  Ilex collina
Habitat
  I. collina can be found growing on hills (Strausbaugh and Core 1978).

Distribution
  This mid-Appalachian species has a very restricted range; it is known from Nicholas, Pocahontas, Randolph and Webster Counties in West Virginia (Nicholson 1987).

Number Left
  Remaining sites and individual number is unknown.

Protection

Global Rank:  
G3
 
12/4/2008
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
RT
 
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  North Carolina S1 T 1/1/2002  
  Virginia S2 E 5/1/2002  
  West Virginia S3 6/1/2000  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Ecological relationships are unknown.

Threats
  Habitat destruction and general urbanization.

Current Research Summary
  Propagation from seed: 1 month of warm and 3 months of cold stratification (immature embryo) (Nicholson 1987).
Propagation from softwood cuttings: difficult, in June, treat with 5,000 ppm K-IBA, under mist. Yields about 20% rooting rate.

Current Management Summary
  No formalized management plan has been designed because this species is not listed as threatened or endangered.

Research Management Needs
  There is urgent need for a taxonomic study of I. collina, as there is much doubt about its distinctiveness as a species (Bass 1984).

Ex Situ Needs
 

References

Books (Single Authors)

Gleason, H.A.; Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Bronx: The New York Botanical Garden.

Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. New York, NY: Hafner Publishing Company. 1505p.

Strausbaugh, P.D.; Core, E.L. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Grantsville, West Virginia: Seneca Books, Incorporated. 1079p.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Conference Proceedings

Porter, D.M. Virginia's Endangered Species: Proceeding of a Symposium. Nongame and Endangered Species Program, Virginia Dept. of Game and Inland Fisheries.; Blacksburg, VA. In: Terwilliger, Karen, editor. 1991. The MacDonald and Woodward Publishing Co.

Electronic Sources

(2002). New York Botanical Garden--The Virtual Herbarium. [Searchable Web site] New York Botanical Garden. Fordham Road Bronx, New York. http://scisun.nybg.org:8890/searchdb/owa/wwwspecimen.searchform. Accessed: 2002.

(2002). Plant Center. [Searchable Web site] University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill -- Herbarium. http://www.ibiblio.org/pic/herbarium.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Alexander, E.J. 1941. Two new species from the southern Appalachians. Castanea. 6: 30-32.

Ammons, N.; Core, E.L. 1945. The Hollies of West Virginia. Castanea. 10: 57-60.

Baas, P. 1984. Vegetative Anatomy and the Taxonomic Status of Ilex collina and Nemopanthus (Aquifoliaceae). Journal of the The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 65: 243-250.

Brooks, A.B. 1936. A new holly for West Virginia. Journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Club. 1: 83-85.

Brooks, M. 1940. A new form of Ilex longipes Chapman. Castanea. 5, 2: 15-16.

Edwin, G. 1957. Notes on Ilex. Rhodora. 59: 20-22.

Woods, F. 1951. The status of Ilex collina. Castanea. 16: 126-127.

Reports

Nicholson, R.G. 1987. Propagation of some woody endemics of eastern North America. Jamaica Plain, MA: Arnold Arboretum. p.12. Notes from a talk given by author in 1987.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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