CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Hackelia cronquistii

Photographer:
Kagan/Joyal/Yamamoto

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Hackelia cronquistii


Family: 
Boraginaceae  
Common Names: 
Cronquist's stickseed, Malheur forget-me-not
Author: 
J.L. Gentry
Growth Habit: 
Forb/herb
CPC Number: 
2102

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Hackelia cronquistiienlarge
Photographer: Kagan/Joyal/Yamamoto
Image Owner: Oregon NHP

Hackelia cronquistiienlarge
Image Owner: Courtesy USFWS


Hackelia cronquistii is Not Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
Edward Guerrant, Ph.D. contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Hackelia cronquistii


Although Hackelia cronquistii can be quite showy, it has historically been overlooked. This perennial herb can range in size from about 6 inches to 2 feet tall (15-60 cm). Its small blue-tinged white flowers put on an attractive display. It was first collected in 1896, but only one population was known to exist until 1982. When searches were finally made between 1982 and 1985, an 15 additional populations were found. Many plants in remote locations go unnoticed. It makes one think how many other plants there may be out there, just waiting to be discovered.

While there are threats to Hackelia cronquistii, their potential effects seem minimal at this time. The major threat is its limited distribution. Any random catastrophic event causing plant death or habitat loss would be disastrous to the survival of the species (Findley 1988). In areas where the land recently burned, the plants are thriving and many are blooming. In an area where an exclosure had been erected to exclude cattle grazing, plants are blooming and vigorous both inside and outside the exclosure (Findley 2001).

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Idaho
Oregon
State Range of  Hackelia cronquistii
Habitat
  Exclusively on sandy and sandy-loam soils on north-facing slopes in association with big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) at elevations near 2060-2460 ft (630-750 m) in eastern Oregon and southwest Idaho.

Distribution
  The Owyhee uplands of southeastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho.

Number Left
  First collected in 1896 at Malheur Butte. As of 1982 only one extant population was known. As people started searching for this rare species, 15 more populations were found between 1982 and 1985. As of 1986, an estimated 8600 individual plants were thought to exist (Yamamoto et al. 1986). As of 2001, approximately 39 occurrences were known in Oregon. Population sizes range from 10 to as many as 10,000 with a total of between 29,000 and 50,000 individuals, although many sites have not been surveyed since the late 1980's or early 1990's. About half of the sites are on private land and half are on Bureau of Land Management (federal) land (ONHDB 2000). There is one listed occurrence in Idaho, which is on private land (ICC 1995).

Protection

Global Rank:  
G3
 
10/5/2005
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
SC
 
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
No
 

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Idaho S1 GP3 12/21/2001  
  Oregon S3 LT 7/12/1995  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Hackelia cronquistii can be self pollinated or pollinated by insects (bees and flies). Seeds are dispersed both through gravity and adhesion to the fur of animals. The seeds have 4-6 prickles along the each edge. The prickles alternate long and short and are extremely effective at grabbing onto passers-by. Germination most likely occurs during the fall due to moisture requirements so soil seed bank forms. Because of low rainfall and fast draining soils, seedlings must establish roots quickly in order to survive (Yamamoto et al. 1986).

Hackelia cronquistii tolerates a wide variety of conditions within its localized distribution. It is found mostly in climax vegetation associations but also occurs in early or mid-successional communities. It is tolerant of a fair amount of disturbance from fire (Yamamoto et al. 1986) and grazing (Findley 2001). Lightning caused range fires are common in the late summer. However, flowering and fruiting occur in the early spring, so such fires most likely do not generally seriously damage the populations (Yamamoto et al. 1986). Cronquist's hackelia is believed to be stable in eastern Oregon (Findley 2001).

Because it is restricted to north-facing slopes, there is no obvious physical connection between colonies (Findley 1988). This reduces the amount of gene flow between populations, as insects would have to travel long distances between patches of plants.

Threats
  • Cattle Grazing (Meinke 1982).
• Herbicide use (Meinke 1982).
• Agricultural expansion, competition from seedlings (Meinke 1982).
• Off-road-vehicle/equestrian use (Findley 1988).
• Transfer of land from public to private (Findley 1988).
• Insecticide use (Findley 1988).

Current Research Summary
  • Germination trials at the Berry Botanic Garden resulted in a maximum germination of only 25%. Seeds subjected to 8 weeks of cold stratification followed by alternating 50/68°F (10/20°C) resulted in 25% germination (2 of 8 seeds). Straight 20°C resulted in 11% (1 of 9 seeds). All other treatments yielded no germination. Seed had been stored for 9 years, so there is a possibility that it had lost some viability (BBG File).

Current Management Summary
  • Most populations are in areas that have been grazed historically (Yamamoto et al. 1986).
• Habitat Management Plan finalized in 1988. Includes provisions for studying threats, protecting populations by limiting herbicide use, grazing, insecticide use during flowering periods, and recreational access (Finldley 1988).
• Exclosures were constructed around several groups of plants for monitoring purposes and for excluding cattle (Findley 2001).
• Seeds from 12 occurrences stored at The Berry Botanic Garden. The most recent collection is from 1991 (BBG File).

Research Management Needs
  • Studies comparing grazed vs. ungrazed areas. (Meinke 1982).
• Immediate protection of any newly discovered populations (Meinke 1982).
• Studies on the effects of fire (Findley 1988).

Ex Situ Needs
  • Collect and store seeds from across range.
• Study seed germination and dormancy requirements (Yamamoto et al. 1986)
• Determine reliable propagation protocols.
• Develop reliable reintroduction protocols

References

Books (Single Authors)

Meinke, R.J. 1982. Threatened and Endangered Vascular Plants of Oregon: An Illustrated Guide. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Region 1. 326p.

ONHP. 2001. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon.

Electronic Sources

ICC. (1995). Idaho EO database. Idaho Conervation Center. Idaho Fish and Game Department.

ICDC. (2001). Online Blue Book. Idaho Conservation Data Center. http://www2.state.id.us/fishgame/info/cdc/cdc.htm. Accessed: 2002.

ONHDB. (2000). Oregon Natural Heritage Program Database. Portland, Oregon.

Journal Articles

Gentry. 1972. (original publication). Madroρo. 21: 490.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1996. Notice of Reclassification of 96 Candidate Taxa. Federal Register. 61, 40: 7457-7463.

Personal Communications

Findley, J. 2001. E-mail communication to Rebecca Weaver dated September 10, 2001. Jean Findley-Vale, Oregon BLM District. On file at The Berry Botanic Garden. 1 pp.

Reports

Atwood, Duane; DeBolt, Ann. 2000. Field Guide to the Special Status Plants of the Bureau of Land Management Lower Snake River District. A Bureau of Land Management Challenge Cost Share Project with Duane Atwood.

Findley, J. 1988. Habitat Management Plant for Hackelia cronquistii. Unpublished report for the Bureau of Land Management, Vale District, Northern Resource Area. p.26.

Moseley, R.K. 1996. Report on the Conservation Status of Hackelia cronquistii in Idaho. Boise, Idaho: Status Survey Report prepared for Idaho Department of Parks and Recreation. p.19 + appendices. through Section 6 funding from U.S. Fish and Wildl.

Yamamoto, S.; Kagan, J.S.; Joyal, E. 1986. Status Report for Hackelia cronquistii. Unpublished report for the Oregon Natural Heritage Data Base. p.36.


  This profile was updated on 7/8/2010
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