CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Abutilon menziesii

Photographer:
Waimea Arboretum

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CPC National Collection Plant Profile

Abutilon menziesii


Family: 
Malvaceae  
Common Name: 
ko'oloa 'ula
Author: 
Seem.
Growth Habit: 
Shrub
CPC Number: 
13

Distribution
Protection
Conservation
References


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Abutilon menziesiienlarge
Photographer: Waimea Arboretum

Abutilon menziesiienlarge
Photographer: Elizabeth Huppman
Image Owner: Harold L. Lyon Arboretum


Abutilon menziesii is Fully Sponsored
Primary custodian for this plant in the CPC National Collection of Endangered Plants is: 
David Orr contributed to this Plant Profile.

 
Abutilon menziesii


Abutilon menziesii is a beautiful shrub with velvety light green, heart shaped leaves. Its flowers range from pale pink to maroon and are borne singularly at the base of the leaves. Abutilon menziesii has apparently been uncommon since its discovery in the 1800's, and is currently found in the dry forests of Lana`i, East Maui and Hawai`i. In 1981, a specimen collection was made in an abandoned cane field at Ewa, on the island of Oah`u and identified as Abutilon menziesii. It was thought at the time to be an escape from cultivation, but today plants located at the Ewa location are recognized as a distinct, naturally occurring population.

Distribution & Occurrence

State Range
  Hawaii
State Range of  Abutilon menziesii
Habitat
  Seasonally dry steep eroded slopes and along washed out gullies, 200-520 meters in elevation.

Distribution
  Lana`i
East Maui
Puako,Hawai`i
Ewa, O`ahu

Number Left
  Lana`i- 2 populations, Pu`u Mahanalua and north or Kaumalapau Road.
East Maui- 5 populations, Kalialinui Gulch drainage (3), vicinity of Pu`u o kali near Kihei (2).
Hawai`i- 1 population, Puako
O`ahu- 1 population, Ewa
Total plants approximately 450-500.
(USFWS 1995) and (USFWS 2001)

Protection

Global Rank:  
G1
 
8/7/1990
Guide to Global Ranks
Federal Status:  
LE
 
9/26/1986
Guide to Federal Status
Recovery Plan:  
Yes
 
9/29/1995

State/Area Protection
  State/Area Rank Status Date  
  Hawaii S1 LE 4/11/2002  

Conservation, Ecology & Research

Ecological Relationships
  Carpenter bees and honey bees have been observed on the flowers, although honey bees seem to have difficulty accessing nectar because of the small size of the flowers. The native bee Nesoprosopis has rarely been observed on flowers of this species, and may have been more important as a pollinator in the past. Seed dispersal agents, longevity of plants and seeds, specific environmental requirements, and other limiting factors are unknown. (USFWS 1995)

Threats
  Agriculture and development
Alien plants
Alien mammals-browsing, trampling
Rats
Fire
Insects-Chinese rose beetle
Loss of pollinators
(USFWS 1995)

Current Research Summary
  Propagation via cuttings and seed. (USFWS 1995)

Current Management Summary
  Seed collection
Monitoring
Ewa, O`ahu population is being propagated and relocated.
(USFWS 1995)

Research Management Needs
  Management of existing populations through exclosures, monitoring, removal of threats.
Establishment of new field populations.
(USFWS 1995)

Ex Situ Needs
  Propagation
Genetic studies
Physiological studies
Seed banking
(USFWS 1995)

References

Books (Single Authors)

Bornhorst, H.L.; Rauch, F.D. 1994. Native Hawaiian Plants for Landscaping, Conservation, and Reforestation. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii--Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. 18p.

Wagner, W.L.; Bruegmann, M.M.; Herbst, D.R; Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press Honolulu.

Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R. 2002. Supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. University of Hawaii Press.

Books (Sections)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz, J.T.; Meacham, C.A., editors. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill, NC.

Electronic Sources

(2002). Hawaiian Native Plant Genera. Gerald D. Carr, University of Hawaii Botany Department. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/natives.htm. Accessed: 2002.

(2002). Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database. [Web-based, searchable database] College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources: University of Hawaii at Manoa. http://pdcs.ctahr.hawaii.edu:591/hawnprop/botlist.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Gustafson, R.J. Hawaii's Unique and Vanishing Flora: A Photographic Exhibition. [Web site] The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Foundation. http://www.nhm.org/research/botany/Hawaii_Vanishing_Flora/home.html. Accessed: 2002.

Lum, B. Native Hawaiian Gardens. Burt Lum, 1996-98. http://www.brouhaha.net/nahele/main.html. Accessed: 2002.

Yoshinaga, A. (2002). Seed storage characteristics of Hawaiian species. [Web site] University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96848. http://www.hawaii.edu/scb/seed/seedtabl.html. Accessed: 2002.

Journal Articles

Ellshoff, Z.E. 1991. The Rarest Hawaiian Members of the Hibiscus Family. National Tropical Botanical Garden: The Bulletin. 21, 3: 7-12.

Herbarium Pacificum Staff. 1999. New Hawaiian plant records for 1998. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 58: 3-11.

Koob, G.A. 2000. It's not really "Red 'Ilima," but that's what people call it - Abutilon menziesii. Hawai'i Horticulture. 3, 12: 9-10.

USFWS. 1976. Proposed Endangered Status for 1700 U.S. Plants. Federal Register. 41: 24523-24572.

USFWS. 1985. Endangered Classification Proposed for Four Plants. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. 10, 8: 4.

USFWS. 1985. Public Hearings and Reopening of Comment Period on Proposed Endangered Status for Abutilon menziesii (ko`oloa 'ula), Hibiscadelphus distans (Kauai hau kuahiwi), Mezoneuron kavaiense (uhiuhi), and Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka). Federal Register. 50, 202: 42196-42197.

USFWS. 1986. Determination of endangered status for Abutilon menziesii (ko'oloa'ula). Federal Register. 51, 187: 34412 - 34415.

Reports

MISC. 2001. Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC), Pulling Together Initiative. 2002 Project Proposal. Submitted to the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. p.14.

USFWS. 1995. Lana`i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.138.

USFWS. 2001. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Species List. March 30, 2000. Honolulu: Unpublished. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. p.19.


  This profile was updated on 3/4/2010
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